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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

5N77 Duga-N [Arc] - Nikolaeyev

A complex of works on the research work "Duga-1" was carried out by the Research Institute of DAR on an experimental installation, which was mounted in the vicinity of the city of Nikolaev (near the village of Kalinovka). Shtyrena's group developed a working model for conducting experiments. In 1963, Shamshin and Shustov in this, so to speak, laboratory semi-finished product found the launch of the rocket from Baikonur at a distance of about three thousand kilometers. In 1964, it first spotted a missile, launched from Baikonur, at a range of 3000 km. Success was on the face, and it had to be developed. But Shtyren was not inclined to hurry. He then realized that in the short-wave location at long ranges, he would have to deal with the unexplored physical processes that arise when radio waves pass through the ionosphere, and also due to various kinds of interference.

After the completion of the research work "Dug-1" in 1965, the Research Institute of the DAR started the next stage of work. At the same place, in the city of Nikolaev, with the Ministry of Defense and the Commission for Military Industrial Issues, a new prototype of an over-the-horizon detection radar was agreed upon. The construction was grandiose: the length of the transmitting antenna is 200 m, the height is 110 m, the length of the receiving antenna is 300 m, and the height is 140 m.

June 30, 1965 Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR Research Institute of DAR was given the creation of an experimental shortened sample of ZAGLS "Duga-2". The prototype ZGRS "Dug-2" received the code 5N77. In 1966, VP Vasyukov was appointed chief designer of the prototype ZGRPS.

In 1966, a draft ZGRPS draft was developed, in which the composition and characteristics of the shortened prototype of the over-horizon radar were determined. The issues of external cooperation were resolved. The design of antenna-feeder devices (AFU) involved the Leningrad branch of the TsPI-20, Specstalkonstruktsiya and Design Bureau. A. A. Rasppletin; power amplifiers - design bureau Leningrad plant. Comintern, OKB DMZ; equipment search for working channels - Leningrad Research Institute "Vector". The rest of the equipment was developed and manufactured at NII-37 (since March 24, 1966, the Research Radio Engineering Institute (NIRTI), since November 25, 1975 - NII DAR (Research Institute for Long-Distance Radio Communication)). The main production and technical enterprise (GPTP) from Moscow was involved in the installation and adjustment work.

In the same 1966 in the vicinity of the city of Nikolaev, the construction of an experimental reduced sample ZGRLS 5N77 "Duga-2" was started. The receiving center of the radar site with ZHRLS 5N77 "Duga-2" was located near the city of Nikolaev (Kalinovka village), which transmits the center near Luch on the border of the Nikolaev and Kherson regions.

In the Scientific Research Institute of Long-Distance Radio Communication (NII DAR), an over-the-horizon radar was created. In 1970, in the vicinity of the city of Nikolaev (Ukraine), a prototype of an over-the-horizon radar was created - the Duga test unit with the Duga radar, which was developed under the leadership of the Chief Designer of the Research Institute DAR FA. Kuzmina. The unit was successfully tested in determining the moment of launch of domestic missile from the Far East and the Pacific Ocean to a landfill on Novaya Zemlya. Positive test results were obtained under medium-latitude route conditions and relatively calm ionosphere.

The station began work on November 7, 1971. The creation of a shortened prototype (SOO) of ZHRS 5N77 was completed in 1972. The radar, built near Nikolaeyev [Nikolaev] near the Black Sea in Ukraine [not in the Caucasus mountains, as suggested by one source] included 26 huge transmitters (each one the size of a two-story building) assembled by the Dnepropetrovsk machine building plant. The transmitting antenna was 210 meters wide and 85 meters high. The receiving antenna was 300 meters wide and 135 meters high. The antenna field housed 330 transmitters of about 15 meters each. The stationary complex, in addition, includes 26 transmitters, each the size of a two-story house, which were assembled by the Dnipropetrovsk machine-building plant. The station provided coverage of China's airspace.

The Duga experimental model over-the-horizon radar, designed by Chief Designer F. Kuzmin, was successfully tested using launches of domestic ballistic missiles from the Far East and Pacific Ocean to the testing ground on Novaya Zemlya. Factory tests ended with positive results of detection of launches of ballistic missiles from the Baikonur cosmodrome. From that moment, full-scale experimental and test work was started at the station SN77 in Nikolaev, aimed at the creation of combat ZGRLS. At the factory trials of the SZGRZ 5N77, there were 4 test operations to detect missile launches. All of them were successful.

After receiving a package of experimental data, which included the facts of detection of launches by an experienced locator of the American Apollo, in the spring of 1971, a sketch design of the combat system of the ZRRS, consisting of two radars, was protected. The commission for reviewing the project was, for example, Colonel-General Yuri Votintsev, commander of the anti-missile defense forces.

The 4th Main Directorate of the USSR Ministry of Defense was closely following our works, which was responsible for the latest armament of the air defense, missile defense, missile defense, and missile warning systems. This department was subordinated directly to the Minister of Defense and the Chief of the General Staff, and not as the commander of the Air Defense Forces.

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