Military Transport Service
(Voennye Soobshcheniya - VOSO)
No significant transportation of military loads or personnel is achieved without the direct participation of the Military Transport Service (Voennye Soobshcheniya - VOSO), be it by railroad, by air, river or sea transport. In the time passed from the day of its formation much has changed in the Central Department of Military Transport of the Ministry of Defense of the RF. Of other services, administrations and branches of services already, and VOSO remains one of the most aclaimed and unique services. On March 5, 1918 was accepted the solution about the passage of military transport service from rate to the highest military council of republic. This date we consider the day of its formation.
The chief for the Central Transportation Corps is a Major General. In 2008 this post was held by Boris Lvovich Svistkov. Svistkov was born on January 1, 1954 in Vyborg Leningrad region. He finished the Leningrad high command school of the railroad troops and military communications im.M.V. Frunze in 1975, the military logistics academy and transport in 1988. He served in the posts of assistant and senior assistant of the military commandant of section and station Krasnovodsk, Tashkent, the officer of the service VOSO served on the posts of assistant and senior assistant of the military commandant of section and station Krasnovodsk, served on the posts of assistant and senior assistant of the military since 1994 in the central apparatus. Since January 1995 he was the chief for the 1st administration TsUP VOSO MO RF. On 30 June 2006, by President's Decree, he was appointed as the chief for the central Transportation Corps of the RF Ministry of Defense.
Military transport service organizes transportation in the interests of Defense Ministry by the transport of the general use: railroad, water, air, automobile. Service obtained special importance, when the first Russian railroads were created, the need of the mass troop movement along the communications arose. Strictly speaking, it is created precisely under those tasks, which always stood before the armed forces, they corresponded to the transport possibilities of state.
To the central Transportation Corps MO RF, whose number about 80 people, is entrusted the task of the transport guarantee. Today it satisfies those requirements, which are laid on the organs of central control. For the sake of armed forces, the branches of services, main and central administrations also are their small subdivisions of the service of the different number (from 3 to 10 people), which accomplish the tasks of the transport guarantee of the troops (forces). In the military districts, the navies, the armies (to the housings inclusively) there are the officials, who answer for planning of military transportation and maintenance of technical equipment. There are representations, also, during the transport organizations with its linear subdivisions. Namely: the Transportation Corps in the forms of transport, with territorial administration, and also the administration of military commandants on the communications. On the railroad sections, at the stations, in the airports, the seaports - military commandants. Through them the service achieves its [predstavitelskie] functions, it realizes plans and tasks in the fulfillment of military transportation.
In all in the service of approximately 2500 people, who deal with direct production activity. And about 800 more people are in the military transport educational institutions.
The basic volume of transportation is carried out by rail transport. This is on the order of 200 thousand railroad cars yearly. More than 230 thousand tons of loads - by sea and internal water transport, and about 3.5 thousand tons by air. They are connected, first of all, with the accomplishment of mission of operational and troops training (forces) in the camps, the training centers, on the ranges. This is approximately of 900 echelons per year.
In the second place - the so-called supply transportation with respect to logistic support of the troops (forces). Here enters the transportation between the bases and the storages MO RF, the materials of maintenance fund, also, from the suppliers in the interests MO RF, and also the large volume of the transportation of supplies into the regions of the extreme north. The so-called "northern delivery" - the order of 250 thousand tons yearly: technology, foodstuffs, and the armament.
The most important task is the organization and the guarantee of transportation connected with the draft ["call"] by the armed forces. VOSO transports on the order of 130 thousand draftees twice each year, and each year on the order of 260 thousand draftees for [VS] and other primary structures where military service is provided. Formerly VOSO conveyed draftees in the general railroad cars, placing 77 people in each for a trip of from 3 days to eight, taking into account trip to the Far East. But these standards were reached from the old times. In 2006 VOSO reworked these standards. Now in the railroad car 54 draftees must be located, each has right in its separate sleeping more recumbent place. VOS is responsible for the preparation of railroad cars, and the guarantee of draftees with hot food, by water, by fuel, by bedclothes, by many others. Although at times a scarcity of rolling stock exists, VOSO tries not to allow it to be a problem. Usually in this composition of 15 passenger railroad cars. In these compositions the chief of train compulsorily is assigned, each railroad car is accompanied by the conductors, that follow the order in the railroad car and its technical state, by the observance of sanitary standards. Furthermore, for tracking the echelons are separated special commands in accordance with the requirements of the service of the troops. Now draftees leave by those already changed clothes for the military uniform.
As far as passenger transportation are concerned, VOSO organizes the transportation of soldiers, members of their families when with legislation, in particular by law "about status of soldiers" (st. 20), are provided privileges on the passage in the established cases. So here, the volumes of these transportation compose order 3.2 mln. people by rail transport per year; 0.5 mln. people by air. And to a lesser degree - sea, river, automobile. All this is organized with military transport service and is paid by a budget fund. Which was about 21 billion rubles in 2007. And about 23 billion rubles budget of 2008.
In addition to this, on us are entrusted the tasks in the repair of the mobile ways, which are under the jurisdiction of Defense Ministry or which we use with the accomplishment of objectives. In all by us are actively used in the interests MO RF approximately 900 siding tracks. Directly siding tracks are overhauled by the railroad troops. VOSO is occupied by the repair of the rolling stock, which is under the operational control of the MO RF. Such railroad cars and locomotives number about 4.5 thousand units. VOSO yearly overhauls on the order of 200 railroad cars. This is included within the framework a common contract with the public company "Russian Railroads". Everything which is located in the Defense Ministry is federal property. Therefore these siding tracks are found in operational control MO RF, and their operation is accomplished on the contract basis.
As far as personnel are concerned, VOSO prepares the primary component (assistants of the military commandants of railroad sections and stations) at the military transport university, which is located in the composition of the railroad troops. There there is the appropriate department, where are trained about 500 cadets. Yearly release is about 100 people.
Earlier passengers were transported from the distant regions by military transport aviation. VOSO used aircraft such as the Il-62, Tu-154, Il-76. But in Il-76 there are no conveniences whatever, that is very inconvenient for the passengers, especially with small children. Therefore in 2007 VOSO ordered only four voyages with the Air Force [VVS], by which they exported soldiers from Baikonur.
As far as lettered trains are concerned, this more greatly it relates to the special transportation. But these are not only boosted fission weapons and fuel elements, but also value in the especially large sizes and so forth purely military transportation. This of the transportation of rockets, nuclear warheads, automatic spacecraft, which directly relates to our service. Are carried out by their [RZHD], but entire organization for their realization lies on the arms of military transport service. For the transportation of other dangerous loads also there are the appropriate normative documents. For example, "the rules of the transportation of dangerous loads in rail transport". All rockets, ammunition are placed in this category and are transported, of course, under the protection of guards. Their designation - within the scope of senders and recipients is entrusted to the staffs of military districts and fleets.
Military transport service is one of the oldest services of the armed forces of the Russian Federation, it is past the large and complex historical way of its development. Even in "the regulations military" 1716, the affirmed by Peter I were indicated that in the field administration of Russian army the delivery of the troops and military loads, the use of roads for military purposes, their repair and the content are under the jurisdiction of the special establishment, headed by General - [vagenmeysterom]. The communications, utilized in the interests of the troops, in combination with the special army transport began to be called "military communications".
In 1812 according to "establishment for management of the large acting army" in the theater of military actions planning and the organization of troop movement achieved a director of military communications and General -[vagenmeyster], subordinated to that directly consisted with the chief of main staff armies to on-duty General, and the organ, which ensures the accomplishment of these objectives, began to be called "the military transport service". Thus, at the beginning of the 19th Century in Russia was formed the system of military communications.
Further their development the organs of military communications were obtained with the advent of railroads and by the beginning of experimental military transportation in the section Petersburg -[Kolpino] Petersburg- Moscow railroad. Special rolling stock for the transportation of the troops was for the first time designed and tested in this section. Were in 1851 comprised the first management about the transportation of the troops by railroad. The first large transportation of the troops was realized from Petersburg to Moscow up to the distance of 650 km, by which were required 9 trains on 14-19 railroad cars in each.
An increase in the military value of railroads caused the need of creating on them the military transport service - the organs, which had to plan, organize and ensure military transportation, the military transport service on the railroads of Russia arising earlier than on the railroads of England, France and Germany, that anticipated Russia in the railroad building. At first management of military transportation was united in the hands of the War Ministry, and military transport service subsequently in the system of military department arose.
On November 24, 1851 was returned the first circular order of military department about the use of a railroad for the military transportation. This day served the beginning of the appearance of military transport service on the railroads of Russia. The speed of the movement of trains with the fulfillment of the first military transportation comprised not above 15 versts an hour, the stand at the large stations - 5 hours, during which [lichnyi] the composition obtained hot food.
The Crimean War 1853-1856 yr. clearly showed the need for the building of railroads for the defense of state. Since 1862 military transport service entered into conducting of the main staff, which knew by questions of dislocation and troop movement, and it was since 1868 in the main staff - "by committee on troop movement railroads and on the water". In the theater of military actions the inspector of military communications, who was being subordinated to the chief of staff of acting army, headed service. Into the tasks of military transport service entered not only questions of operation, but also questions of destruction and restoration of communications. Toward the end of the 1860's were introduced the posts managing by troop movement on the railroad lines and the waterways, and somewhat later - since 1912. - the commandants of railroad sections.
With the victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution and the need of conducting the military actions at the fronts of Civil War sharply came up the question about control system of military transportation. With the disbandment of the former General Headquarters of the Supreme Command and the formation of the highest military council of republic to it on March 5, 1918. was transmitted the Transportation Corps, which existed with the rate. This day is considered the day of the formation of the organs of military communications to the Red Army.
On May 8, 1918, order #339 people commissioners in military science created the All-Russian Main Staff, in composition of which also was a Transportation Corps. These two superior bodies of management of the military communications of republic existed in parallel until September 2, 1918 ; when they were united in the United Central Transportation Corps (TsUP VOSO (Military Communications Service)) with the highest military council of republic. The order of the highest military council of the republic of ? 49 from 7.10.1918 g. established that TsUP VOSO is the superior body of the military communications of republic. In the composition of the staffs of fronts, armies, military districts were created the Transportation Corpses, and on the railroads - the linear organs of military communications - the administration of the chiefs of troop movement and military kommendatures. To the central Transportation Corps were at that time subordinated the railroad troops, automobile, by stages- transport and working parts, military establishments of post, telegraphic and telephone connection.
The volume of military transportation along the railroads in the years of Civil War and foreign military intervention composed 33454 operational trains (40401 echelons) and 6679 supply trains, in all - 40133 trains, in which were transported 24,5 million people even 2,5 million horses. The specific weight of operational transportation in the total volume of military transportation composed 83,4%, the mean time of the presence in the way of troop trains was 6 days, and their average-daily speed of 250-300 km.
One of the special features of the work of rail transport before the war was composition of the plan of the forming of trains and technical planning of the entire operational work of network, which contributed to improvement in the work of units, stations, sections and entire directions.
The treacherous attack of Fascist Germany and the forced withdrawal of Soviet troops in the initial period of war placed rail transport in an exceptionally difficult position. Because of the temporary withdrawal of the troops the extent of railroads always was decreased and toward the end by 1941 was reduced by 42% of the prewar level. The average-daily loading of the troops and the supplies during the first days of war was of about 40% of general loading on the entire network of railroads. On the control of the organs of military communications simultaneously it was found to 1,5-1,7 thousand troop trains and to 10-12 thousand transports only through the centralized plan.
In February 1942 in the composition GKO was formed the transport committee, on which were assigned a mission in the general planning and the coordination of the work of all forms of transport, and TsUP VOSO actually fulfilled the functions of the staff of transport committee. In the first months of war for the purpose of more operational control of service the order NKO of ? 0370 from 22.10.1941 g. published clauses about the chiefs of the military communications of fronts and armies, were demarcated the functions of the field and linear organs of military communications, and on the railroads the decision GKO from 14.12.1941 #1024 created stage service.
The work of transport on the realization of evacuation transportation was associated with the huge difficulties. In short periods entire branches of industry, hundred of factories and plants, and also significant quantity of transportation means, materials and raw material were relocated into the rear.
The delivery of supplies to the troops by railroad was achieved under the action of continuous bombings. The total volume of military rail transportation in the years of war composed 442,2 thousand trains (19714,5 thousand railroad cars). Army medical trains transported more than 5 million injured and patients. The average speed of the advance of echelons in a 24 hour period in May - June 1945. were 600 km, and supply transports to 450 km.
The maintenance of front railroads was accomplished by linear railroad subdivisions and those created in the course of of World War II military- operational shaping of NKPS (People's Commissariat of Railroads) and by railroad operational regiments.
The first formings of NKPS - Military- operational administrations ([VEU]) and Military- operational departments ([VEO]) were created in the period of battle in the environs of Moscow in October 1941.
The railroad troops and special shaping carried out gigantic work on the restoration of railroads in the territory freed from the enemy. In the time of war by them it was restored and given to the operative condition 80136 km only of main ways, it is more than 32 thousand km of the alternate and station paths, 2756 large and average bridges.
Medical and sanitary maintenance and food guarantee of transportable soldiers was well organized on the railroads. For the medical and sanitary care of the troops were expanded insulating- spacing points, disinfection forces, bath and laundry and [bannodezinfektsionnye] trains and network of sanitary- control points. In 1944 were only washed 27,2 million transportable in echelons and commands of soldiers, [prodezinfitsirovano] 31,6 million sets of outfit. In the years of war military- food points gave out more than 217 million hot dinners, more than 500 million rations of dry and to the boiler allowance, baked 157 million kgf of bread.
The organs of military communications on the front and frontal railroads had in their subordination to the air defense unit of the troop trains, which accompanied trains with the people and most important transports. In 1944. them were counted - 10 regiments (on 40 platoons in each) and 14 individual battalions PVO (20 platoons in each). By the air defense units of troop trains were reflected about 6 thousand attacks of enemy aviation, are biased 132 aircraft, it is destroyed 523 saboteurs and 222 are undertaken into the captivity.
Along the inland waterways of communication in the years of war were transported more than 4 million soldiers and commanders, 212 thousand horses, there is much combat materiel, are transferred several hundred underwater and above-water warships. By the subdivisions of GVF and parts transported about 2,7 million people (including injured) and about 300 thousand t of different loads.
However, as a whole in the time of World War II the role of each form of transport in the transportation of supplies by the volume of freight traffic comprised: railroad 79,7%, aqueous 17,7%, automobile 2,5%, air - of about 0,1%.
After the end of World War II to the organs of military communications and for the workers of transport it was necessary to solve many complex problems: to carry out the significant by the volume transportation, connected with the demobilization, by the return to the country of different type of supplies, which are located abroad. This work was carried out organizationally and within the established periods. Restoration and increase in the capacities of all forms of transport began. By 1965. the extent of railroads increased on more than 18 thousand km, automobile hard surface roads - approximately 2, inland waterways - by 14 percent. Freight traffic in the postwar 20 years grew: railroads - it is more than 6 times, river transport - almost 7,5 times, truck transport - approximately 28 times. Many times increased transportation by air transport and pumping of petroleum products in the conduits.
In 1961 the reorganization of military transport service was carried out. Volume and nature of the works of service became wider and more many-sided, considerably increased the complexity of the tasks in the preparation of all forms of transport in defense sense and their use solved by it for the satisfaction of the needs of armed forces for the transportation.
On the basis of the study of the experience of World War II, results of military science work, experience of studies the officers of military communications increased their knowledge and improved the skills of the organization of transportation and control of them, preparation of communications for defense purposes and increase in their vitality.
In the 1960's 7 thousand km of new railroad lines was built. The main railroad directions, which strengthened the transport connections of the center of the country with Central Asia regions, Transbaykal, the Far East were built. The main motor roads Moscow - Kiev, Moscow - Volgograd, Kuybyshev - Ufa - Chelyabinsk were built. The technical reequipping of railroads made it possible to increase the weight standards of trains, to increase their length and speed of motion.
The perfection of transport guarantee and technology of transportation, increase in the stability of the work of transport and introduction of new transportation means, an improvement in the quality of control by transport process and its comprehensive guarantee - these and many other tasks are the focus of the attention of the personnel of the organs of military communications.
The work of transport is improved, the rates of the transportation of the troops grow, are improved the coordination of the work of all forms of transport, the comprehensive guarantee of the transportable troops. New in the organization of military transportation solidly enters into life.
In 1979-1989 the organs of military communications ensured the transportation of the troops into Afghanistan, and then their removal. Subsequently, in connection with reduction and withdrawal of forces within the compressed periods were realized the transportation of personnel, combat materiel and property from the countries of far and near [zarubezhya]. For example, from the Western group of forces rail and sea transport exported 6 armies (22 divisions, 47 brigades, 42 individual regiments) by the total number more than half million people, 123,629 pieces of equipment and armament, about 3 millnio tons of supplies.
In the period since November 30, 1994. until January 1, 1997, with the conducting by the limited contingent of the Russian troops together with the internal and border forces of operation on the disarmament of the illegal armed units in Chechnya for purposes of the restoration of constitutional order the personnel of military transport service [VS] RF carried out the tasks of government for the organization of military transportation into the Chechen republic.
After the formulation of the problems by Minister of Defense RF for conducting of operation, TsUP VOSO MO RF, working in the conditions limited on the time, operationally with MPS it approached the fulfillment of preparatory measures. As a result forced service TsUP VOSO MO RF was prepared and represented in the assertion of chief of the General Staff [VS] RF the plan of military transportation. For the fulfillment of this plan the complex of organizational and technical measures was carried out.
The staff of the command of the united group of the troops in Chechnya was provide ford with comprehensive information about the bringing up of reserves and their position, composition and time of arrival into the stations of destination. Entire volume of transportation is executed within the assigned periods, which is caused by reaching high speeds on the routes of transportation, by precise and coordinated interaction of organs VOSO and MPS RF at all levels of control.
In all within entire period of conducting operation were transported 209 military trains, about 7 thousand railroad cars, furthermore, were delivered 3477 military transports, about 18 thousand railroad cars with the ammunition, by armament, by military equipment and by other supplies. The experience of the troop movement to Chechnya and the organization of their comprehensive guarantee again showed that rail transport is most important with the preparation and in the course of conducting both the large-scale military operations and with the accomplishment of specific objectives.
After preserving united organizational structure and system of control, rail transport preserved its potential possibilities on the fulfillment of mass military transportation within the shortest periods, but it at present requires larger attention from the side of state. The organs of military communications, being the connecting link between transport and Defense Ministry (its plenipotentiary representatives), again showed the effectiveness of its activity, the high professional level with the solution of the problems assigned to them.
At present the military transport service of armed forces RF solves specific and important for the alert of the armed forces of the task of peaceful and military time - it meets the transport demands of the troops (naval forces) and is monitored the preparation of communications in the interests of armed forces RF.
Bringing its possibilities into the correspondence with the tasks of the troops and the organizational changes in structure and dislocation of the groups of armed forces RF is the main content in building and improvement of military transport service under the conditions of military reform.
In this case is done entire possible for retaining the existing potential of the organs of military communications, use of those acting and development of the new methods of organizing of transportation, maximum retention of the structure of service and system of control of military transportation.
In the appropriate directive documents it is confirmed and it is fixed that the organs of military communications are the plenipotentiary representatives of Defense Ministry RF in rail, sea, river and air transport. They are intended for organizing of military transportation, development of proposals on the preparation of communications in the interests of armed forces. To the organs of military communications in the forms of transport is given the right to solve with the command of the transportable troops and the officials in the field of transportation all problems, which are concerned military transportation.
Building and daily activity of the organs of military communications flow under the complex conditions, which were established in the field of transportation. First of all, these are unhealthy passage to the new economic relations, the decentralization of management with the sea, river and air transport, the absence of new normative- legal documents, the backward material and technical base of transport, weakening attention on the mobilization work, and in a number of cases and its coagulation, a substantial increase in the tariffs on the military transportation, the absence of financing military transportation in the required volumes.
All these and other problems it is necessary to encounter for the officers of the organs of military communications in its official activity and to solve them. Thus, the problems, connected with the appearance of customs barriers and new state borders, decide via the conclusion of bilateral agreements on the organization of intergovermental transportation.
Many questions arose with the guarantee of the troops of Kaliningrad special region (transit through Lithuania and Belarus'). TsUP VOSO together with the interested administrations and the services MO proposed to organize navigable line Saint-Petersburg- Kaliningrad with the use of force and facilities of Baltic fleet and civil owners of North Western region.
Basic trends in further development of military transport service are: the improvement of the system of the comprehensive guarantee of the troops (naval forces) in transport sense; the improvement of the alert, operational, combat and mobilization training of the organs of military communications; the improvement of control system of military transportation taking into account changes in control system of transport; a study and the development of measures for the improvement of the [mobilizatsionnotekhnicheskoy] preparation of rail, sea, river and air transport; reconstruction of the cadre policy of the system of preparation and training of the officers of military transport service taking into account contemporary requirements.
The building of service VOSO includes three stages. During the first stage the buildings of service (1992 g.) are carried out basic organizational measures for the forming of military transport service [VS] RF (determined the duty station of military communications in the structure of armed forces, it is developed the normative- legal base of building and functioning of service). In the course of the second stage (1993-1995 yr.) the reorganization of service and a reduction in its number taking into account the tasks solved by the troops was conducted, the development of proposals on an increase in the vitality of communications and control of their fulfillment was accomplished. In the third stage of the building of military transport service (after 1995.) occurs the completion of the building of service and its reduction to the established number, the arrangement of the establishments of military communications for the complete guarantee of transport needs of associations, connections and parts on the new places for dislocation.
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