Automotive Troops [Avtomobil'nye Voiska]
The Land Forces consist of motor-rifle, tank, rocket and artillery units, air-defense units and army aviation. The special-purpose forces include engineer, gas and automobile troops, signals and logistical services and organizations. Automotive Troops [Avtomobil'nye Voiska] are special forces designed to resupply of ammunition, fuel, food and other supplies necessary for the conduct of hostilities, as well as to evacuate the wounded, sick, technology. They can transport troops, not having their vehicles. Consist of automobile (motor) units and parts, organizational constituent-Service and parts compounds, as well as parts and those of the armed forces or for separate automobile parts. Equipping the Army automotive technology and the emergence of the first automobile parts, teams and units demanded the creation of a special service, which was the training of personnel, maintenance and repair of equipment, supplies automotive parts, as well as provisions for their use.
Motor transport troops are Special Troops of Ground Forces which can transport troops which do not have their own motor transport. They consist of automobile (motor transport) elements which organizationally form part of combined units and compounds, and also parts and connections of the branches of services which comprise separate motor transport units. At present motor transport troops in their composition have automobile brigades, separate battalions. Road construction and maintainance troops consist of road-commandant and bridge brigades, separate road-commandant, road, and bridge battalions, and other parts, establishments and organizations. Training specialists for the road and motor transport troops is accomplished in the Military Logistics Academy in St. Petersburg), in the departments of military training of six civil VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) of the Russian Federation.
May 29 is Russian Army Day for military motorists. The festival dates back to 2000, which was established by order of Minister of Defense of Russia. The date May 29 was timed to coincide with the events of 1910. This year in St. Petersburg set up the firstmilitary automotive training company. The purpose of these troops was training and training of military specialists for automotive parts of the Russian army. This organization has become a model for the creation of automotive service.
This day pays tribute to the meritous military motorists who have committed outstanding actions and deeds in defending their homeland. These people made a great contribution to the strengthening of defense forces and the borders of Russia. Automobile troops today are members of the various forces of Russia, serving as the borders of the country and in the rear. Car troops are needed to evacuate the wounded and sick, transporting the necessary ammunition and food supplies, evacuate the property and transport personnel. In more than a century war motorists transported about 100 million tons of all sorts of goods. They have strategic importance in all the wars in which Russia participated. In particular in the Chechen war military troops took the road most of the execution of transactions themselves.
Since May 1910 all organizational and technical issues of road affairs in the Russian army are under the Military Communications Department of the General Directorate of General Staff (EIA GUGSH). With the "Big Program" in 1913 all the technical and logistical issues retreated to the Chief Engineer's Office, which soon was reconfigured into the main military-technical management. Organizational questions remained to continue in charge of the department of military communications GUGSH. Continued growth in vehicle fleet in the troops demanded the establishment of appropriate authorities in the fronts and armies.
For guidance, automotive service and supply of automotive parts of the property by order of the Supreme Commander of 23 February 1915. Number 306 in the front were set up management heads the automotive part. The head of the automotive part of the front subordinate Chief of Staff through the front quartermaster-general.
In the military head of the automotive part was the commander of one of the automotive companies. He obeyed all the car parts and teams, as well as workshops and advanced benzosklady. The head of the automotive part of the army subordinate quartermaster-general through the Chief of landmark-economic department of Staff of the Army. In a special respect, he was placed under the head of the automotive part of the front.
Back in 1913, instructions contained five chapters on the storage, use and maintenance of automotive technology. Of particular interest is the last chapter, which contained instructions motor units. They defined the rules of traffic on the roads and streets, traffic and construction columns. In 1914 a draft executive statute for automotive parts and a draft of the Manual for car service. In particular, the draft Charter had been included on the organization of motor units, as officers, order entry machines in operation, marching columns of the building and management. The manual defines traffic locations, the rules of carriage of goods, the supply road assets and other matters. They were the first guidelines for motorists Russian army. They were based on the analysis of the first empirical data defining rules and regulations of automotive technology in the troops.
Since 1911 for drivers of road teams and units was introduced special winter and summer uniforms, as well as the emblem of road troops, which exists now. For graduates of the automotive school under a special lapel badge. Thus, during the First World War in the Russian army started Automobile Troops who had their part, governments, statutory documents and forms of dress. During the war, road transport has largely emergency transport of ammunition, food and other supplies, participated in the rapid movement of troops and evacuation.
By the end of 1914 in the Russian army was formed eleven automotive companies (lifting capacity of the automobile company was determined in 125 tonnes) and a number of automotive care units (in addition, 5 automobile companies were formed before the war). By January 1915 reserve cars before the Russian command, dried up, and the formation of new vehicle units virtually ceased. In order to form the next thirteen automotive companies, three health units, one pulemetnoy company and sixteen road machine-gun platoon, planned for 1915., Russian commanders to order abroad a supply of 6042 trucks and 1171 cars. In addition, it ordered 223 tractors. Prior to June 1915 managed to get only 2114 vehicles and 123 tractors, ie about 30% of the needs of cars.
Total by the end of the First World War, there were 31 workshops with an annual output of major repairs of cars to 12,950 units. In 1916 the Government has made an attempt to create five private and one kazenny Automobile Plant: AMO (Moscow), Russian-Baltic Plant (Fili), Russian Reno (Rybinsk) Aksai (Rostov), Vladimir Lebedev (Yaroslavl), Bekos (Mytishchi). However, the construction of any of these plants had not been completed.
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