By the end of the 1990s the total output of TU-154 type was 929 aircraft. Key versions of the aircraft: TU-154, TU-154A, TU-154B and TU-154M. The TU-154M (the first serial machine TU-154M made its first flight 16 June 1984 and soon was put into serial production) by its performance and economic data significantly exceeded the first version TU-154. TU-154 aircraft were intensively exported abroad, totally 166 aircraft were exported in various versions (from them 98 TU-154m aircraft).
Medium-haul passenger aircraft Tu-154, was found in the series building on [KuAZe] since 1968 prior to the end of 1974, in all were released 42 aircraft (first series machine it completed the first flight in 1970.). Practically all aircraft Tu-154 at the end the 70's were re-equipped into the aircraft Tu-154B.
TU-154A Medium-haul aircraft
At the beginning of the 1970s the modification Tu-154A appeared with the more high-powered engines NK-8-2u. This made it possible to increase payload. The aircraft began to enter in April 1974 into the aircraft enterprises. Basic difference Tu-154A from Tu-154 was in installation of motors NK-8-2u with the increased to 10500 kG takeoff thrust. This made it possible more effectively to use strength possibilities of the construction of aircraft and to bring its takeoff mass to 94000 kgf due to the additional fuel. This ensured an increase in the practical flying range to 3200-3300 km with 16000 kgf of payload, it made it possible to improve takeoff data, especially under the conditions of hot climate and high mountain region.
Tests of the Tu-154 in essence confirmed its flight performances, but they also showed that the aircraft required further improvement in the part of the increase in the reliability of some of its structural assemblies, aggregates, improvement in the operational technological effectiveness and changes in the layout of passenger compartment. However, the major problems of aircraft were the guarantee of the assigned resource and the introduction of the system of automatic landing approach to height 30 m. Subsequently all the development of aircraft TU-154, before the appearance of modification Tu-154M, revolved in essence around the solution of these problems. There were consecutively created modifications Tu-154A and several versions Tu-154B with the engines NK-8-2[u] with the increased thrust, in which these problems were properly solved in proportion to gaining of the experience of operation and readiness of the necessary systems, aggregates and equipment.
Tu-154A they were let out since 1974, in all were built 78 aircraft Tu-154A. Subsequently all released Tu-154A were re-equipped as Tu-154B.
In 1980 left the joint solution of MAP-MA by the cargo version Tu-154S. Load into the cab loaded on 9- TI pans of the type PAV -3, total payload 20000 kg. after conducting of plant and running tests, party Tu-154S in 1984 was officially accepted for the operation by the internal and international lines of civil aviation. In the 1980s nine aircraft were altered into the cargo version Tu-154S (initial designation Tu-154T). The armchairs, the partitions between the salons removed in these machines. Cargo hatch 2,9 X 1,8 was cut out on the left side. The rollers for the movement of loads established on the sex. This version is capable of raising into air to 20 tons of payload. This specialised freight version, announced in third quarter of 1982; offered primarily as Tu-154B conversion; unobstructed main cabin cargo volume 72 m 3 (2,542 cu ft); freight door 2.80 m (9 ft 2 in) wide and 1.87 m (6 ft 1 in) high in port side of cabin, forward of wing, with ball mat inside and roller tracks full length of cabin floor; typical load nine standard international pallets 2.24 - 2.74 m (88 - 108 in) plus additional freight in standard underfloor baggage holds, volume 38 m 3 (1,341 cu ft); nominal range 1,565 n miles (2,900 km; 1,800 miles) with 20,000 kg (44,100 lb) cargo.
At the beginning of the 1990's between NATO alliance countries and Russia, for the purpose of strengthening the measures of confidence between two former enemies on "Cold War", it was decided to develop the system of aerial observation of the military activity in Europe. In 1995 German firm Daimler Benz Airbus together with the specialists of Tupolev at the plant in Dresden re-equipped for program "open sky" aircraft Tu-154[M], that belonged to that of former GDR. The Open Skies Treaty entered into force on January 1, 2002.
Aircraft was equipped with cameras of different types, with video cameras and other equipment, which was united into the single integrated complex. On September 13, 1997 above the southwestern coast of Africa this aircraft encountered with a USAF C-141 and perished together with entire crew. Analogous work on the re-equipment of aircraft Tu-154M into the aircraft Tu-154 IT, but with the domestic purposeful equipment, conducted in the 1990's Tupolev's OKB.
The TU-154 was the only aircraft the Russian Federation has used to perform missions over the United States. As of late 2007 Russia planned to certify a new aircraft, the TU-214, as early as spring 2008. Unlike the TU-154 (which was shared with the Cosmonaut program), the TU-214 will be a dedicated Open Skies mission aircraft and is capable of reaching the U.S. without stopping to refuel. This hinted at the possibility of more missions over the U.S. in the coming years.
For training of pilots, tests and selection of the optimum system of the automatic landing of Soviet aerospace ship "snow-storm" on the base Tu-154 were made several specialized flying laboratories. Aircraft actively were used in the course of preparation for the flights on VKS Buran [snow-storm].
TU-155LL flying laboratory
"155" (TU-155) was an experimental aircraft, flying laboratory. Serial TU-154 aircraft provided with prototype NK-88 engine operating liquid hydrogen and liquified natural gas (LNG) and required fuel equipment and instrumentation. First flight - 15 April 1988. Extremely high reliability Tu-154 made it possible to create on its base the first in the world experimental aircraft, which uses as the fuel liquid hydrogen and liquified natural newspaper aircraft it underwent the successful tests at the end of the 80th - beginning of the 90's [KHKH] of century, it completed about 60 flights on these forms of fuel.
The separate direction of works on Tu-154 for OKB is participation in the re-equipment of aircraft into the machines of VIP-class. In OKB is prepared a series of projects with different design of the VIP-salons for Tu-154, which, depending on the selection of customer take root to the series Tu-154 both Russian and foreign customers. In OKB is prepared a series of projects with different design of the VIP- salons for Tu-154, which, depending on the selection of customer, take root to the series Tu-154 both Russian and foreign customers.
OKB. AN Tupolev has proposed the creation of an elongated modification serial Tu-154 by two additional inserts to the fuselage and wing center. The project has received the designation Tu-174. Power plant was supposed to translate into new, more efficient engines D-ZOKU. Passenger capacity increased up to 224-230 people, determined to range 2,200 km. Tu-174 project fit into the gradation "average airbus", but without increasing the diameter of the fuselage. In this case, the elements of the fuselage were standardized serial Tu-154, which was one of the major benefits of the project. Tu-174 took to further the design, which was to be completed by 1973, and in 1974 was supposed to convey the machine into operation. In the second half of the 70s began preliminary studies for the modernization serial Tu-154-D engine under ZOKU-154, this work focused on the OKB, and serial aircraft factory.
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