Tu-155 / Tu-156
The Tu-155 aircraft was created on the basis of production aircraft Tu-154B. For using the cryogenic fuel the airframe and some regular systems were finished, were established the systems, which ensure servicing, storage, the supply of cryogenic fuel to the engine, the explosive-fire safety of aircraft, and also the system of collection and recording of the parameters. Experimental cryogenic fuel complex is for purposes of safety placed in the special section, isolated from the adjacent sections of fuselage by the buffer zones, which have a ventilation system.
Experimental engine the NK-88, which works on liquid hydrogen or liquefied natural gas, is established in the right pod of aircraft. The reserve of cryogenic fuel is placed in the fuel tank by the capacity of 17,5 m3, established in the special section in the tail section of the passenger cabin. The servicing complex, placed on safety conditions of works on the self-contained area, utilized also for the stand and the aircraft maintenance, was created for servicing of aircraft with cryogenic fuels. Delivery [SPG] on area was achieved by fuel servicing trucks. For operational provisions on the creation of experimental aircraft Tu-155 the number of questions was solved on the stands of ground-based finalizing and checking of separate aggregates and aircraft systems, which work on cryogenic fuels. The creation of aircraft was accompanied by conducting the arge compex of scientific research works, deveoping the normative materia significant by the voume. In the work on the creation of aircraft took active part the speciaists of joint stock company SNTK im. N.D. Kuznetsov, UKBM, joint stock company OKB Crysta, GUP AKB Anchor, KKB Armaturproekt, AO tekhpribor, EPO Signa, KPKB Kriogenmash, NPO Khimavtomatika, joint stock company Electric drive, TsIAM (Centra Scientific Research Institute of Aircraft Engines im. P.I. Baranov), TsAGI (Centra Institute of Aerohydrodynamics im. N Ye Zhukovskiy), eahs, VIAM (A-Union Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Materias), GIPKh (State Institute of Appied Chemistry), VNIIPO, GosNIIGA (State Scientific Research Institute of Civi Aviation), J.I.N.R., KHFTINT, KBOM, joint stock company Gazprom, MGPZ and others
On April 15, 1988. aircraft completed the first flight on liquid hydrogen. After conducting of flight tests and modifications on January 18, 1989. aircraft Tu-155 completed the first flight on the liquefied natural gas. Large flight- research program is executed, are carried out several international demonstration flights, including into Bratislava (Czechoslovakia), nice (France), Berlin and Hannover (Germany).
Therefore the flying laboratory experimental aircraft Tu-155, was finished for the use not only of liquid hydrogen, but also for the application of liquefied natural gas (SPG). Thus, was created the first in the world aircraft on the cryogenic fuels. The appearance of an aircraft Tu-155 radically changed the spectrum of the problems of the creation of cryogenic aviation. It is actually proven that contemporary technical equipment created the power plant, which allows so confidently and it is safe, as on the usual kerosene, to fly on the liquefied natural gas and on liquid hydrogen.
The real possibility to switch over to the practical creation of aircraft on the liquefied natural gas appeared. The creation of aircraft was accompanied by the development of a whole series of the pioneer solutions, realized both on it very, and on the stands. Unique is, first of all, the experience of the guarantee of explosive-fire safety of the aircraft, which uses cryogenic fuels! The developed principles and technical solutions of this problem (for example, for the first time used in the aviation system of gas control) will find a use on all future cryogenic aircraft. The same can be said also about the power plant of aircraft, whose basic technical solutions are new. Diagram and cryogenic engine accessories, fuel pumps, the system of the maintenance of pressure finally cryogenic fuel tanks - all this can be used in the subsequent developments.
Joint stock company Tupolev developed the program of the creation of cryogenic aircraft. During the first stage this program it created the Tu-156 aircraft. Cargo-passenger aircraft Tu-156 is intended for the finalizing in the process of the prolonged operation of the elements of onboard cryogenic fuel system and its certification, and also for finalizing of ground-based infrastructure the cryogenic assemblies of aircraft will be established on the subsequent series cryogenic aircraft of joint stock company "Tupolev".
Two forms of the fuel adapt on the aircraft: aviation kerosene and liquefied natural gas, which makes it possible to exploit aircraft on the usual airfields and on the airfields, which have the systems of servicing [SPG]. The application of two forms of fuel considerably increases flight safety.
Aircraft Tu-156 can transport 14 tons of payload with the distance flights to 2600 km on [SPG] and to 3300 km on [SPG] kerosene. In the tail end of the passenger cabin is separated the ventilation section in which it is established the basic cryogenic tank, which contains 13 t [SPG]. In the front baggage hold is separated the ventilation section, in which are established centering cryogenic fuel tanks, which consists of two horizontally located communicating vessels, containing 3,8 t [SPG]. To the aircraft Tu-156 in essence is released technical documentation. A experimental model of engine NK-89 and a whole series of other cryogenic aggregates are prepared and test on the stands.
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