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SS-N-3 SEPAL
SSC-1a SHADDOCK

The "SHADDOCK/SEPAL" missile is an interesting example of the limits of Western intelligence during the early years of the Cold War, since NATO applied the SHADDOCK designation to six different and unrelated missiles, yet the virtually identical S-35 and P-35 missiles were given two different codenames -- SEPAL and SHADDOCK, respectively.

Limited production of the P-6 (SS-N-3a) was reported to be continuing in the mid-1980s but production of the P-7 (SS-N-3c) had been completed by that time. Small numbers of P-35 (SS-N-3b) were still being produced in 1986 possibly to replace wastage or possibly as Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV). It was unclear if any of the missiles remained in production for the anti-shipping role, but it seemed unlikely. The SS-N-3 was in service only with the Russian Navy.

The 'Whisky Twin Cylinder' class was deployed only to the Northern and Pacific Fleets but circa 1960 there was a major change in Soviet naval policy away from the emphasis upon land attack, which could be better handled by the land-based missiles of the Strategic Rocket Forces, and more towards anti-ship, specifically the new generation of US 'super carriers' which could threaten the Soviet homeland. This led to a change in role for the 'Echo I' class while work already under way to improve the P-5 was exploited to produce a long-range anti-ship missile designated P-6 Progress (NATO designation SS-N-3a 'Shaddock') which was assigned to the submarine force from circa 1963. The limitation of the Progress missile system was that it could not be launched by a submerged submarine.

The Progress missile is a long slim cylinder with pointed nose and a large air scoop under the fuselage. It has short swept-back wings which fold, and a clipped delta tailplane under the rear of the fuselage. Also at the rear are two moving tail surfaces low down on the fuselage and two slim, rectangular stabilizers in 'V' shaped configuration high up. In 'Shaddock' (P-617) the air intake is unimpeded but in 'Sepal' (P-25) it is split. Both versions use twin-booster packs weighing some 800 kg and attached to the rear sides to get into the air but the packs are slightly different in design.

Reports indicated that air support was especially important for submarine-launched missiles. The submarine has to remain on the surface for 20 minutes after launch to track the missile and provide course corrections and during this time its speed would be reduced to as little as eight knots. To protect it against aerial retaliation a 'Snoop Slab' or 'Snoop Tray' I-band radar in the fin is used to track friendly aircraft and to provide target update data.

Nomenclature

The word SHADDOCK is a southeastern Asian tree producing large fruits resembling grapefruits. The shaddock (Citrus ilecumana) is one of the four distinct or leading species into which the orange tribe of plants is divided. The shaddock is larger than the orange, both in the tree and the fruit. The tree has spreading, prickly branches: the leaves are eggshaped and rather acute, and the leaf-stalks are furnished with remarkably large heartshaped wings : the flowers are white, with reflexed petals, and very sweet-scented. The fruit, which is from two and a half to eight inches in diameter, is spheroidal, of a greenish yellow color, and has twelve or more cells, containing, according to the variety, either a red or white pulp. The juice is sweet in some varieties, and acid in others; it is rather insipid, but is excellent for quenching thirst. The rind, which is of a disagreeable bitter flavor, is very thick, in consequence of which the fruit can be much longer preserved during sea-voyages than that of any other species of citrus.

The shaddock is a native of China and the neighboring countries, where the name of "sweet-ball" is given to it. Its common name is derived from Captain Shaddock, who brought it from China to the West Indies. It has, however, been neglected there, and is now but seldom entitled to its oriental name of sweet-ball. Instead of propagating the shaddock by budding, as is done in China, and which is the only way it can be improved, or even kept from degenerating, they reared it from seed, and have in consequence only obtained a harsh and sour sort of little value. The shaddock came to England from the West Indies, and was cultivated by Miller in 1739. In the West it was certainly the least valuable of the genus to which it belongs; and for the attention which it received it is chiefly indebted to the showiness both of the tree and the fruit. In its native country the fruit attains a much greater size than in the West.

The word SEPAL is a leaflike flower part that is the outermost whorl of a flower. Usually it is green and can be found underneath the petals. The sepal is the part that encases and protects the flower when it is in the bud stage. A group of sepals enclose a developing bud and are mostly green in color. A sepal typically functions as protection for the flower while it is budding and often supports the petals when in bloom. All of the sepals together make up the calyx of a flower.

It might be thought that a stamen is a contracted petal as wels as the petal is an expanded stamen; or that a sepal is contracted foliage-leaf, as that a foliage-leaf is an expanded sepal. It must require but little evidence to convince the most sceptical observer that a bract is nothing more than an imperfectly-formed leaf. The transition from a bract to a sepal is very easy. In the Strawberry, the calyx is composed of five bracts alternating with the five sepals, and distinguishable from them in nothing but size; in the Paeony, the leaves insensibly pass into bracts, and the bracts into petals; and in the Carolina Allspice (Calycanthus), the same gradual transition is strikingly apparent. The transition from a bract to a sepal is very easy. In the Strawberry, the calyx is composed of five bracts alternating with the five sepals, and distinguishable from them in nothing but size; in the Paeony, the leaves insensibly pass into bracts, and the bracts into petals; and in the Carolina Allspice (Calycanthus), the same gradual transition is strikingly apparent.



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