P-5 Pityorka / Shaddock
The SS-N-3 is a family of turbojet-powered, cruise missiles with three variants [confusingly, the Western nomenclature designates the initial P-5 variant with the highest number -- SS-N-3c]. The rocket P-5 represents a qualitative leap in the development of domestic cruise missiles. First of all, this is due to the automatic opening of the wing after the start. Prior to the P-5, all domestic and foreign cruise missiles before the start were to be assembled or, at least, the preliminary opening of the wing.
Sources close to the builder Vladimir Chalomei revealed that the idea of the wing with such a special mechanism occurred to the Soviet genius after he saw something similar in the window of a hotel. According to another version, the design came to mind when he saw a bird coming out of the hole in a tree.
The P-5 system projectile became the first maritime cruise missile in the world with wings that automatically deployed after launch. Until that time, all the missiles of the USSR and those of the foreigner were produced in parts that were assembled together, and their operators opened their wings before launching them. A submarine could fire these missiles only when it ascended to the surface. The missile took off from an airtight container of small size. The decisions implemented in the design of the P-5 became the model to be followed later both in the construction of missiles in the USSR and worldwide.
A rocket with a folded wing easily fit into a cylindrical container of small diameter, which in length does not exceed the rocket itself. Such a container without problems was located on a submarine, and on a wheeled or caterpillar chassis. In addition, the container was sealed and filled with nitrogen, which protected the rocket from the effects of the external environment.
The P-5 [SS-N-3c Shaddock], an inertially-guided missile, was launched from Echo II, Whiskey Conversion, and Juliett submarines and flies to a maximum range of 250 nm. It is the oldest of the three SS-N-3 missiles and is almost identical to the Soviet Army SSC-1a (Shaddock).
The P-5 cruise missile was designed in the 1950's by the Chelomey design bureau. The P-5 had a special system of two unfolding wings "ARK-5", which allowed it to be launched from the relatively low diameter cylindrical submarine launcher. P-5 had a range of 500 km at an altitude of 100-400 meters and a speed of 345 m/s [Mach 0.9]. The later P-7 variant had a range of 1000 km. These characteristics allowed the P-5 to effectively penetrate the US coastal air defense system of the early 1960's. As with the US Navy's Regulus, to fire the SS-N-3c the submarine platform had to surface for launch, deploy and activate a tracking radar, and remain on the surface linked to the high altitude cruise missile in flight via datalink, providing guidance commands based on the submarine radar's tracking data.
When firing at full range, the estimated circumferential probable deviation was 3000 meters. The 800-1000 kg combat unit could be a high-explosive or special RDS-4 (the same as the ballistic missile R-11FM). Initially, the equivalent yield of the special charge was 200 kt, and then 650 kt.
The first launch of the P-5 model without the propulsion engine and the wing opening automaton took place on March 12, 1957 on the NII-2 test site. The first stage of the P-5 flight tests was carried out in Balaklava on a floating booth 4A from August 1957 to March 1958. The rockets were launched from a CM-49 container. The first launch on August 28, 1957 was unsuccessful, the second, third and fourth launches were successful.
The design of the experimental submarine for the P-5 tests began according to the Decree of the Council of Ministers No. 1457-809 of August 8, 1955. The S-146 project 613 was intended for the alteration. The missile weapon was installed by removing the spare torpedoes, torpedo-loading device and artillery weapons. The first two launches of P-5 missiles from the submarine S-146 were conducted in the White Sea near Severodvinsk on November 22 and 29, 1957. In total, from August 28, 1957 to January 1959, there were 21 P-5 launches. By resolution of the Council of Ministers No. 685-313 of June 19, 1959, the P-5 complex was adopted by the Navy.
Even before the introduction of the P-5 missile, in OKB-52 work began on various upgrades to this missile. Thus, in 1959, a preliminary design of the P-5RG missile with a radar homing head was developed for firing at surface ships. In 1962, flight tests of P-5 missiles with anti-radar coating XV-10, a kind of "stealth", were conducted. The first boat missile also had a number of shortcomings: the surface launch of the rocket, the small accuracy of the shooting (which was partly compensated for by the presence of special ammunition during firing). When firing at the maximum range, 80% of the missiles were to fall into a circle with a radius of 3 km, and the rest - outside it. The flight of the rocket could only take place over level ground (without mountains and hills), there were also restrictions on the direction and speed of the wind.
Various shortcomings were eliminated in the modernization of the P-5 missile, conducted in OKB-52 in 1958-1962. In the control system of the rocket "Bereg" (autopilot AP-70D) was introduced Doppler measuring the path and demolition of the rocket in flight, which significantly reduced its dependence on meteorological conditions and allowed 2-3 times to improve the accuracy of fire. The high-precision radio altimeter RV-5M was introduced into the onboard control equipment, which made it possible to reduce the altitude of the missile over the sea to 250 meters. The upgraded missile received the P-5D index and underwent flight tests from September 1959 to July 1961.
The first launch took place from the ground container CM-49 and was unsuccessful. It is interesting that seven P-5D launches were conducted from a mobile 2P30 launcher from a land-based C-5 rocket (analog P-5). By decision of the Council of Ministers on March 2, 1962, the P-5D complex was adopted. For the tests of the P-5D complex, the submarine C-162 of Project 644 was converted into the 644-D project. The re-equipment began at the Krasnoye Sormovo plant in August 1960 and ended at the completion facility in Severodvinsk in January 1961. State joint tests of the P-5D complex on the C-162 in the volume of 9 launches were carried out in October-December 1961, and based on their results, the P-5D complex was recommended for adoption.
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