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P-35 / S-35 Progress - SS-N-3 SEPAL / SHADDOCK

The P-35 SS-N-3b (SEPAL), also a radar-homing missile, was launched from Kynda and Kresta I class guided-missile cruisers and generally flies to a range of 150 nm at a speed of Mach 1.2. It was estimated to carry a 2200-lb warhead.

The S-35 SSC-1a "SHADDOCK" missile is transported in and launched from a long cylindrical container mounted on an eight-wheel vehicle of distinctive appearance. For launching, the crew lowered the four hydraulic stabilization jacks, removes the hemispherical end covers to the top-mounted tables, clamps down the blast shields over the windows, and elevates the container to the proper launch angle. The SSC-lb coastal defense version can be distinguished by the longer driver's cab on the transport-launch vehicle.

The flight of both missiles took place in the "high altitude - low altitude" mode. A large altitude of flight was required to provide direct radar contact between the submarine and the rocket until the targets of the radar-guided missile were detected. Then the radar image was broadcast to the submarine, where the officer-operator produced target selection (that is, he chose the most important goal, for example, an aircraft carrier in an aircraft carrier warrant). After that, a command was given from the boat to capture the chosen target for the radar sightings of the missile. This ended the telecontrol mode, and the rocket fell to a low altitude, without losing radar contact with the captured target and carrying out homing on it at the rate. At the end, the missile dived to the target, the warhead ["combat unit"] was not separated.

The P-35 (4K44) missile had several flight modes at altitudes from 400 m and almost to 7.5 km. Depending on the altitude regime, the flight speed and range (about 100 to 300 km) varied.

The first launch of the P-35 missile took place on October 21, 1959. In total, during the first stage of flight tests from a ground-based launcher from October 1959 to March 1960, five launches were conducted without radio equipment. The launchers for P-35 SM-70, SM-82 and SME-142 were designed by TsKB-34 jointly with TsNII 173 (guidance drives), and manufactured at the Bolshevik plant. The task to develop a full-time launcher for the cruisers of Project 58 was issued by TsKB-34 in December 1956. The four-container SM-82 was intended for ground tests of the complex, and one-container PU of the SME-142 for tests on the experimental vessel OS-15 (re-equipped in 1959 dry cargo ship "Ile").

Tests of P-35 on OS-15 were carried out on the Caspian Sea at a training ground in the vicinity of Krasnovodsk. The first launch took place on July 27, 1960. The first series of seven starts gave unsatisfactory results and required the completion of the APLI-1 control system.

The subsequent flight tests from the fourth quarter of 1962 on the experimental vessel OS-15 were more successful. In the area of Baku, a number of launches were conducted on targets: the unfinished ship of the destroyers Kiev Project 48 and the tanker Nizami. One missile, with an inert warhead (without an explosive), was enough to sink the ship with a displacement of 2500 tons. The missile hit the left cheekbone of Kiev, opened the deck like a tin can, about 50 meters long, then the rocket collapsed, and her engine struck the bottom, and after 3 minutes the ship sank.

In parallel with the P-35 tests, construction of destroyers of Project 58 was underway. The first ship of Project 58 "Grozny" was laid down on February 23, 1960, and descended on March 26, 1961, the same year the first two quad-thrust SM-70. The horizontal aiming angle was 120, the start angle was 25 . The ammunition for each installation was 8 P-35 missiles, of which 4 were directly in the launcher containers, and 4 more in the cellar, next to the installation. Usually, one of the four P-35 missiles had a special combat unit of 20 kt.

The mooring trials of the cruiser "Grozny" were started on March 1, 1962 with the technical readiness of the ship 87.3%. May 31, 1962, with the technical readiness of the ship 90.5%, factory trials were started, which were conducted in the Gulf of Finland in the area of Kronstadt - the island of Goldgan.

From June 27 to July 6, 1962, "Grozny" made a transition from the Baltic to the White Sea, having conducted a series of tests along the way. During tests in the White Sea five cruise missiles P-35 were launched from the cruiser for a range of about 200 km. Of these, two firings with three single rockets and one firing with a two-missile salvo, of which five out of five missiles had a direct hit on the target (one missile per firing). One of the rockets in the Kandalaksha Gulf was sunk by the destroyer "Discreet" Project 30K (displacement of 3000 tons), turned into a target.

During the exercises "Kasatka" in July 1962 from the side of the cruiser of the project 68bis "Admiral Ushakov" N.S. Khrushchev watched the shooting of the destroyer "Terrible". Taking advantage of the favorable impression made by the ship on the leader, the fleet commander Kasatonov started talking about the fact that climbing a step in a ship report card about ranks would improve the position of officers on the ship of officers. Each of them will get the right to assign the next rank. Khrushchev smiled - there was no objection. So the destroyers of Project 58 became cruisers.

Already on combat service on May 4, 1963, the cruiser "Grozny" sank a self-propelled target SM-5 - the former leader of destroyers "Leningrad" (displacement 2,700 tons, length 127,5 m, width 11,7 m, draft 4 , 2 m). In total at the Zhdanov plant in Leningrad were built four cruisers of the project 58 - "Terrible", "Admiral Fokine", "Admiral Golovko" and "Varyag". The cruiser Admiral Golovko was withdrawn from the fleet at the end of 2002.

In 1964-1968, At the same plant, four large anti-submarine ships of Project 1134 were laid (Admiral Zozulya, Vladivostok, Vice Admiral Drozd and Sevastopol). The ships of Project 1134 were armed with P-35 missiles, installed in two twin launch vehicles KT-35. The pivoting mechanism had no launchers, and the guidance was made by turning the hull of the ship. The project provided for the deployment of four spare missiles in the cellars on the upper deck. However, during the construction of ships from the reloading of missiles refused.

In addition, according to the Decree of the Council of Ministers No. 822-351 of August 7, 1962, a version of the P-35 was installed for eight ships of the 57bis project, from which the missiles were taken off. However, the planned replacement of the KSSC by P-35, anti-aircraft guided missiles (SLM) and anti-submarine weapons was unrealistic, and the P-35 refused in favor of the latter two.

It is interesting that the P-35 could be used for firing at ground targets, for which it was only necessary to transfer the on-board control system "Block" from the "M" (sea) mode to the "B" (coastal) regime. In this case, the missile on command from the cruiser dived to the target at an angle of 80.

The attack on surface ships at distances many times exceeding the range of direct radar visibility required the creation of an reconnaissance and target designation system for anti-ship missiles. Such a system was made and consisted of an on-board radar detection system for surface targets and radar information broadcasting equipment placed on Tu-16RTS, Tu-95RC aircraft (later on Ka-25RC helicopters) and at reception points on ships. In the reconnaissance and target designation system adopted in 1965, for the first time, a reconnaissance aircraft was sent from a reconnaissance aircraft to a carrier ship of radar images of the area of the survey in real time.

The long range of the Tu-95RC allowed reconnaissance of ships to the sea and perform target designation tasks at a range of up to 7000 km.

On August 16, 1960 issued a decree of the Council of Ministers No. 903-378 on the development of the anti-ship coastal defense complex Redut on the basis of the P-35 complex. The rocket of the coastal complex received the P-35B index. The minimum firing range of the P-35B missile is 25 km, the maximum range is 270 km. The flight altitude was 400, 4000 or 7000 m. The flight altitude in the final section is 100 m. The dimensions and devices of the rocket did not differ from the P-35.

In the Northern Fleet, the 501st Independent Coastal Missile Regiment deployed on the Rybachy Peninsula was rearmed with the Redut missiles in 1971-1974. July 16, 1961 issued a resolution of the Council of Ministers on the rearmament of on-shore stationary complexes "Utes" from Sopka missiles to P-35B missiles.

In 1974, on the basis of the P-35 complex, the development of the ZM44 "Progress" complex began. The main change in the missile was a new on-board guidance system with increased noise immunity and selectivity.



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