9A310M1-2 Self-Propelled Mount (SPM)
Transporter Erector Launcher And Radar (TELAR)
With a considerable engagement envelope in slant range, altitude and horizontal range, the unique feature of the Buk system and all its versions is that a combat mission can be executed by an individual firing unit - the self-propelled mount (SPM). This quality ensures the surprise of air target engagement from ambushes and the independent change of firing positions, which substantially increases the SPM survivability.
Each TELAR is operated by a crew of four and is equipped with chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear+ (CBRN) protection. The radar fitted to each TELAR, referred to as the 'Fire Dome' by NATO, is a monopulse+ type radar and can begin tracking at the missile's maximum range (32 km/20 mi) and can track aircraft flying at between 15 m and 22 km (50 to 72,000 ft) altitudes. The modernized SPM with the phased array antenna can be interfaced with the Buk-M1-2 equipment; as a result, the number of simultaneously engaged targets can be increased from 6 to 10, and even 12.
The structure of self-propelled fire installation 9A310M1-2 includes:
- radar (radar)
- launcher (PU) with four rockets
- digital computer system,
- television-optical sight,
- laser rangefinder
- navigation and communication equipment,
- built-in simulator
- equipment documentation.
The SPM is essentially a tracked chassis that carries a radar and a launcher with four missiles. The 9A310M1-2 SPM can fire standard 9M38M1 missiles or new 9M317 missiles (developed by the Dolgoprudny Research and Production Enterprise). The arrangement of the radar and the missile launcher on one rigid platform allows their simultaneous laying in azimuth and elevation with the aid of an electrohydraulic drive. The 9A310M1-2 SPM also comprises a digital computer system, a TV optical sight, a laser range finder, navigation and communications equipment, an IFF interrogator, a built-in simulator and documentation equipment.
During combat operation, the SPM detects a target, determines its IFF status, automatically tracks the target and identifies its type, computes the flight mission and launch assignment, launches a missile, transmits radio correction commands to the missile and evaluates the firing results. The SPM can engage targets as part of an air defense missile complex with target designation data transmitted from the command post or independently within an assigned sector of responsibility. Targets can be engaged by missiles launched from the SPM or from an attached loader-launcher (LL).
The concealment of SPM operation has been improved owing to the introduction of a laser range finder which together with the TV optical sight ensures passive direction finding of overland and waterborne targets. The modified software of the digital computer system ensures the optimal angles of missile flight to a target, thereby minimizing the effect of the underlying surface on the missile homing head.
To increase the effectiveness of the missile warhead in engaging waterborne (overland) targets, the radio fuze is disconnected and the contact fuze is connected instead. A new operating mode, the 'coordinate support,' is introduced to improve the jamming immunity of the system. In this mode, use is made of range coordinates obtained from other assets of the system to engage an active jammer. So, the number of channels for firing at an active jammer is increased twofold, compared to the previously used triangulation mode which required the employment of two SPMs.
The 9A310M1-2 SPM can be interfaced with the means complex "Cube" (known abroad as Kvadrat, or SA-6). In this complex "Cube" can simultaneously fire at two targets instead of one. One target channel is 9A310M1 JMA-2 with attached self-propelled launcher (SPU) 2P25, the second - the regular, ie control station exploration and guidance (sunray) 1S91 with SPU 2P25. JMA upgraded with phased array can be interfaced with the means of complex "Buk-M1-2", bringing the number of simultaneously fired targets from 6 to 10 - 12.
In recent years, the Instrument-Making Research Institute and partner companies successfully carried out research and development to further upgrade the air defense missile system as a whole and its individual elements. The main features of SPM modernization include:
- increased number of simultaneously engaged targets owing to the use of a phased array antenna;
- enhanced jamming immunity due to the adaptation of the phased array antenna beam to tactical and ECM environments;
- augmented radar effectiveness by increasing the transmitter output power and the sensitivity of the SHF receiver (new electronic device);
- employment of high-speed computers and modern digital signal processing.
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|