Anti-aircraft missile system "Buk-M1-2" is intended for air defense troops and installations from modern and advanced high-speed maneuvering aircraft tactical and strategic aircraft, attack helicopters, including hovering, tactical ballistic and cruise missiles and aircraft, under massive raid using intensive radio and enemy fire, and destroy surface and ground targets and can be used in systems air, missile and coastal defense. SAM "Buk-M1-2" is a multipurpose complex, performing simultaneous firing of six targets flying at different altitudes and azimuths.
Complex "Buk-M1-2" differs from its predecessor SAM "Buk-M1" primarily by using the new 9M317 missile. The complex "Buk-M1-2" uses two types of missiles - 9M317 and 9M38M1. While working with rockets 9M38M1 complex "Buk-M1-2" has the same characteristics as the air defense system "Buk-M1". The rocket are launched from the firing of self-propelled units 9A310M1-2 and 9A39M1-2 installations.
In addition to the application of advanced missile, the Buk-M1-2 provides the introduction to the complex of new equipment with the placement of the radar antenna in the operating position to a height of 22 meters, using a telescopic device. The introduction of the new illumination and guidance radar significantly expands the combat capabilities of the complex to defeat low-flying targets, in particular, advanced cruise missiles.
Effective air defense can be built only if an air defense grouping includes various systems. As a rule, these are close-in, short, medium and long range systems, with surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems being the mainstay of such a grouping. The first highly mobile Russian SAM system of this class was the famous Kub (Kvadrat) system developed by the Tikhomirov Instrument-Making Research Institute in the 1960s. Its fate was lucky. It repeatedly confirmed its high effectiveness in real combat conditions, i.e., in military conflicts of various intensity. In the 1970s and 1980s, the Instrument-Making Research Institute developed the Buk SAM system and its version - the Buk-M1.
Cooperation between enterprises was headed by "NIIP. V.V.Tihonravova" in 1994 and 1997. Work was carried out to establish on the basis of SAM 9K37 "Buk" Modernized complex "Buk-M1-2." In 1998 the Institute completed the next modernization of this system by developing the Buk-M1-2. Leading developer of the Kub and Buk SAM systems was the Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant. This system is a multipurpose firing asset. Beside air targets, it is capable of engaging overland and waterborne radar and TV contrast pinpoint targets. In addition, its engagement zone was expanded, jamming immunity increased, and the engagement of tactical ballistic missiles was ensured.
This complex became a universal means of fire. Through the application of a new missile 9M317 and other means of modernization of the complex, for the first time possible to defeat tactical missiles such as the "Lance" missiles at ranges of up to 20 km, the elements of precision weapons, surface ships at ranges up to 25 km and ground targets (aircraft on the ground, launchers, large command centers) at distances up to 15 km.
The complex is available in two versions - the mobile tracked machines GM-569 family type applied in previous versions of the complex "Beech", and carried on trucks with trailers and car KrAZ. In the latter case with some reduction in the cost of deteriorating performance and the deployment of cross-SAMs march increases from 5 to 10-15 min.
Main directions of modernization:
- increasing the number of simultaneously engaged targets through the use of a phased array antenna (PAR);
- improved noise immunity by adapting beam PAR to tactical and noise conditions.
- efficiency by increasing the radar transmitter power and receiver sensitivity of the microwave (new electronic devices);
- use of high-speed computers and advanced digital signal processing.
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