9K37M1 BUK-1M/Buk-M1-2 / SA-11 GADFLY - History
Development was initiated by Decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of 13 January 1972 and included the use of cooperative developers and manufacturers, according to the basic structure corresponding previously involved in creating SAM "Cube". At the same time was determined to develop SAM M-22 "Hurricane" for the Navy from using a single set of "Buk" SAM.
Developer SAM "Buk" was the Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design (NIIP) Scientific Design Association (NPO) "Fazotron" (CEO VK Grishin) MCI (formerly OKB-15 GKAT). Chief designer of the whole complex 9K37 was appointed A.A.Rastov, command post (CP) 9S470 - G.N.Valaev (then - V.I.Sokiran), self-propelled fire units (JMA) 9A38 - V.V.Matyashev, Doppler semiactive homing 9E50 for SAM - I.G.Akopyan.
Pre-loading unit (ROM) 9A39 was created in Mechanical Engineering Design Bureau (ICB) "Start" MAP (formerly SKB-203 GKAT) under the leadership of AI Yaskina. Unified crawlers for complex combat vehicles were designed by OKB-40 Mytischinskogo Machinery Plant (MMZ), Ministry of Transport Engineering team headed N.A.Astrovym. Missile design 9M38 was at the Sverdlovsk Machine-Building Design Bureau (MCBN) "Novator" MAP (former OKB-8) led L.V.Lyulevym, having previously developed the SAM complex "Cube". The station detection and targeting (SOC) 9S18 ("Dome") was developed in the Research Institute of instrumentation (NIIIP) MCI under the leadership of A.P.Vetoshko (then - Yu.P.Schekotova). Finalization of the was in 1975.
Resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of 22 May 1974 ordered to carrying out the creation of SAM "Buk" in two stages. This proposed an initially accelerated schedule for self-propelled SAM firing installation SAM "Buk" capable of launching missiles 9M38 as well as from the complex 3M9M3 "Kub-M3". On this basis, using other means complex "Cub-M3" envisaged to create a SAM "Buk-1" (9K37-1), providing it with access to the joint tests in September 1974.
For SAM "Buk-1" provided as part of each of the five anti-aircraft missile batteries Regiment "Kub-M3", in addition to a self-propelled installation intelligence and guidance, and four self-propelled launchers have a self-propelled unit 9A38 fire from the air defense system "Buk". Thus, through the use of self-propelled fire installation cost of approximately 30% for all other means of antiaircraft missile batteries in the regiment "Cube-MZ" target number of channels increased from 5 to 10 and the number of combat readiness SAM - from 60 to 75.
In the period from August 1975 to October 1976, the "Buk-1" as part of the self-propelled exploration and guidance 1S91M3, self-propelled fire installation 9A38, self-propelled launchers 2P25M3, SAM 3M9M2 and 9M38, as well as machine maintenance (MTO) 9V881 passed state tests at Emba range (Headed by B.I.Vaschenko) under the leadership of the commission headed by P.S.Bimbash.
The test results obtained an aircraft radar detection range of self-propelled fire offline installation of 65 to 77 km at altitudes of over 3,000 m, which at low altitudes (30-100 m) was reduced to 32-41 km. Helicopters at low altitudes were detected at a distance of 21-35 km. In centralized mode of operation, due to the limited capacity of self-propelled targeting intelligence and guidance, the detection range for aircraft was reduced to 44 km for targets at altitudes of 3000-7000 m and up to 21-28 km at low altitudes.
Delay time of self-propelled fire offline installation (from target detection to start SAM) was 24-27 seconds. Time charged and discharged three SAM 3M9M3 or 9M38 amounted to about 9 min. When firing SAM 9M38 can defeat aircraft flying at altitudes of more than 3 km, at the range from 3.4 to 20.5 km, and at a height of 3.1 meters - 5 to 15.4 km. The affected area was the height of 30 m to 14 km, for course setting - 18 km. Probability of hitting one aircraft SAM 9M38 amounted 0.70-0.93.
The complex was adopted in 1978. Due to the fact that the self-propelled launcher mounts 9A38 and 9M38 were Zour means a complementary means of SAM "Cube-MZ" complex was named "Cube-M4" (2K12M4). In the Army Air Defense complexes, "Cube-M4" substantially improved the efficiency of air defense armored divisions of the Land Forces of the Soviet Army.
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