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S-400 SA-21 Triumf - Radars

An S-400 battalion consists of two batteries, each with a command centre, one surveillance/target acquisition radar, one fire control and engagement radar (92N6 known as Grave Stone by NATO) and four launch trucks (formally called transporter-erector-launcher vehicles, TEL) each carrying four large or 16 small missiles, plus vehicles for auxiliary functions such as reloading and power supply. Other types of search radars or target acquisition radars can be added, such as mast-mounted or with alleged capabilities against stealth aircraft. Two battalions make up a regiment and the battalion is normally connected to additional sensors and command functions at the regimental level, as well as to territorial search radars, electronic listening stations and the air defence command-and-control network. All the main functions are mounted on large multi-axle trucks. These can be airlifted, but only on very large transport aircraft.

One S-400 regiment consists of a command section with a 96L6 radar, which replaces both the 64N6 and 76N6 used in the S-300PMU-2. The command section can control up to six batteries. Each battery consists of one GRAVE STONE engagement radar which can control up to 12 TELs. The S-300PMU-2 Favorit Command Post included the 54K6E2 combat control system and the 64N6E2 detection radar (300km, s-band). Each of 90Zh6E2 batteries include a 30N6E2 multifunctional illumination and guidance radar (x-band), 96L6E all-altitude detection and target designation multiphased array radar, and 8 launchers 5P85SE in Transport-Launch Containers (TLC) with four missiles in each.

Russia displayed the 96L6 surveillance radar for the S-400 missile system at the MAKS 2001 defence exhibition at Zhukovsky near Moscow. It operates in C-band, and the manufacturers say it can detect and track aircraft and cruise missiles which use stealth technology. Work on the 96L6 began in the second half of the 1980s, when Boris Vasilyevics Bunkin, the general designer of CKB Almaz defined the requirements for a surveillance radar to form part of the new S-400 missile system. In 1988, representatives of the main developing organisation and the customer signed agreement giving the go-ahead for wideband radar technology, based on this earlier research to be used in the VVO program. In 1991, the Lira design bureau built a prototype of the VVO radar. This started operation in early 1992.

The role of the 96L6 is the detection of air targets and measuring of their azimuth, elevation and range. It can be used with the S-300PMU surface-to-air (SAM) system, can autonomously assign targets for the 90Zh6E, 90Zh6E1 and 90Zh6E2 (S-300PMU-1 and later) air-defence missile complexes, and can be connected with the Baykal-1E and Senezh-M1E automated command and control systems or the radiotechnical forces' Osnova-1E and Polye-E command posts. It can pass information about a wide spectrum of the aerial targets, including aircraft, helicopters, UAVs and missiles, to the 30N6E, 30N6E1, 30N6E2 ('Flap Lid') series of tracking and missile guidance radars.

GRAVE STONE is the modified TOMB STONE engagement radar.

The 55Zh6-1 Nebo-U radar sets are to be fielded along with the S-400, though they are not an organic element of the S-400. The radar was developed by the Nizhny Novgorod Research and Development Institute of Radio Technology [NNIIRT]. It is said to be the only radar in the world with a digital phased-array antenna that works in the metric-wave band. The radar has one horizontal and one vertical antenna of large size and deeply modified Yagi-type aerials. The radar's range is up to 600 km for targets flying between 40-75,000 m, 400 km for targets at 20,000 m, 300 km for targets at 10,000 m, and at least 65 km for targets flying at 500 m. Despite its metric wavelength, the achieved resolution is high, reportedly 400 m in distance and 0.4 degress in azimuth.

The radar can rotate at speeds of 10 rpm or 20 rpm to provide 360-degree coverage. Due to its large antennas and complexity, the radar requires seven heavy trucks and trailers to transport it, and its deployment time is 22 hours. The Nebo-U radar sets are being manufactured by AOA Nitel Company (Nizhny Novogrod, Russia), which already has produced of small batch of pre-series sets. The radar sets, types 55Zh6-1 and 1L13-3, were shown twice, in 1992 and 1993, at Nizhni Novgorod International Fair and at MOSAEROSHOW exhibition in Moscow. They attracted the interest of experts at the exhibition of weaponry in Abu-Dhabi.

when the 40N6 missile becomes operational, in order to fully exploit its range against targets between 3 000 and 10 000 meters altitude, it will be necessary to connect the S-400 battery to an external (airborne or forwardplaced) radar that can see the target and provide usable target data for the missile battery. Using an external and forward-placed sensor to provide target data so that a shooter (launch unit) positioned further back can fire on a target beyond the horizon is often called a Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC). When applied to airborne targets capable of moving in three dimensions at high speed, this is a demanding task involving a lot of high-tech engineering and integration, which the US Navy has only recently mastered after decades of effort. Given the problems in Russias defence industries, perhaps particularly defence electronics, it seems unlikely that Russia will be able to do this anytime soon.

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