S-400 SA-21 Triumf - Missiles
The 40N6 is an anti-aircraft super-long-range guided missile designed to destroy DRLO and EW aircraft, air command posts, strategic bombers, hypersonic cruise and ballistic missiles. The range of destruction - up to 380 km for aerodynamic purposes and up to 15 km for ballistic, height - from 10 m to 35 km. Anti-aircraft missiles of the S-400 complex (9M96, 48N6, 48N6DM) that were previously in service ensured the destruction of targets at a range of up to 250 km. The most long-range US anti-aircraft missile system - the Patriot PAC-3 - can destroy targets at a distance of up to 80-100 km.
An important difference between the S-400 and its prototype S-300P is the new anti-aircraft missiles with active homing heads and increased range of fire. The system can selectively operate using up to four types of rockets of different starting mass and launch range - thus creating a defense in echelon.
The system was developed on the basis of the S-300 SAM in the early 2000s by the Academician Raspletin Research and Production Association Almaz (now the enterprise is part of the Aerospace Defense Concern Almaz-Antey). In comparison with the predecessor, the S-400 has significantly better tactical and technical capabilities: in terms of coverage, diversity of targets and efficiency. "Triumph" was adopted in April 2007, in the same year began its mass production. The first division of the system entered combat duty in the city of Elektrostal near Moscow.
48N6DM Medium-Range Missile
A large, long-range (200–250 km) high-speed missile with semi-active guidance, known as the 48N6, is a slightly enhanced version of the missile used in the o der S-300 family of systems, known as SA-10 Grumble and SA-20 Gargoyle by NATO. The S-300PMU-2 uses the 48N6E2 missile with a range of 200 km, speed of Mach 6, and altitude ranging from 10 m to up to 28 km. This missile is optimized to engage ballistic missiles. It can engage targets with a maximum speed of Mach 8. Comparing with other missiles, the 48N6E2 has much improved capabilities. For example Arrow 2 anti-ballistic system can engage targets flying with the same maximum speed of Mach 8, while the Patriot PAC-2 can engage targets with a maximum speed of Mach 6.
The new 48N6DM missile, an upgraded version of the long-range 48N6 for the S-400 air-defence system, was tested by the Fakel Machine Design Bureau on 30 April 2004 at the Kapustin Yar Missile Test Range (KYMTR). Other missiles associated with the S-400 system include the 9M96, 9M96M, 48N6 and 40N6.
9M96 Medium-Range Missile
A highly agile short- to medium-range (two versions exist - 9M96E and 9M96E2, 40 and 120 km) missile with active radar guidance, known as the 9M96 and 9M96DM, is intended for use against tactical aircraft, PGMs and ballistic missile warheads. This missile is primarily for self-defence of the S-400 units and any Russian high-value targets close to it.
The 9M96 medium-range missile is designed to destroy aircraft and air- delivered weapons at ranges in excess of 120 km. The 9M96E is a single-stage missile with a dual mode guiding system, radar active in the final phase and inertial with radio- control in the cruising phase. The missile is small-- considerably lighter than the ZUR 48N6Ye used in the S-300PMU1 systems and the Favorit. The missile is equipped with an active homing head and has an estimated single shot kill probability of 0.9 for manned aircraft and 0.8 for unmanned maneuvering aircraft. A gas-dynamic control system enables the 9M96 missile to maneuver at altitudes of up to 35 km at forces of over 20g, which permits engagment of non- strategic ballistic missiles with trajectory speed up to 4.8km/s. One 9M96 modification will become the basic long-range weapon of Air Force combat aircraft, and may become the standardized missile for air defense SAM systems, ship-launched air defense missile systems, and fighter aircraft.
The 9M96E and 9M96E2 missiles carry similar onboard equipment, payload and are identical in construction. The only difference between the two missiles is that the 9M96E2 model is equipped with a larger and more powerful propulsion motor featuring a greater power-to-weight ratio. With little difference in size and weight, the 9M96E and 9M96E2 missiles may engage targets at a range of 1 to 40 km (9M96E) and 120 km (9M96E2) and at an altitude of 5 m to 20 km (9M96E) and 30 km (9M96E2).
The 9M96E2 missiles is based on all-new components, use new high-energy solid fuel and an advanced guidance and control system which has made it possible to minimize their size. The 9M96E2 missile can intercept all types of aircraft, including tactical ballistic and medium-range theater missiles flying at altitudes from 5 meters to 30 kilometers. Their exceptionally high accuracy is ensured by the missile's main secret, the so-called transverse control engine, which rules out misses during the final approach trajectory. The transverse control engine is still without parallel in the world. Russia's top-of-the-line 9M96E2 guided air defense missile is being marketed by Russia's state-owned arms trader Rosvooruzhenye. A mockup of the missile was set up at an Athens arms exhibition in October 1998.
One variant of the 9M96 is an air launched version proposed for long range anti-AWACs use on the Mig-31M. Another variant of the 9M96 in the 96M9M target drone, designed to simulate various high speed ballisitic targets with various RCS at speeds of up to 1.3km/s.
40N6 Long-Range Missile
A large, very long-range (400 km) high-speed missile with active radar guidance, known as the 40N6, is intended primarily for use against large high-value targets. This missile is the basis for the oft-repeated claim that the S-400 has a range of 400 km, but has repeatedly failed in tests and was not yet in series production or operational as of 2019. However, Moscow had claimed that it has now been cleared for production.
The 40N6 is an anti-aircraft super-long-range guided missile designed to destroy DRLO and EW aircraft, air command posts, strategic bombers, hypersonic cruise and ballistic missiles. According to official data, the range of destruction - up to 380 km for aerodynamic purposes and up to 15 km for ballistic, height - from 10 m to 35 km. Thanks to the new homing head, it can destroy aircraft outside the radio visibility of ground-based locators. The rocket was developed by ICB Fakel, mass production is carried out by the Moscow Aviation Plant “Avangard”. Its adoption was expected in the early 2010s, but the tests were delayed.
The "big" missile [designation otherwise unknown as of 1999] is intended to have a range of up to 400 km and will be able to engage over-the-horizon [OTH] targets using a new seeker head developed by Almaz Central Design Bureau. This seeker can operate in both a semiactive and active mode, with the seeker switched to a search mode on ground command and homing on targets independently. Targets for this missile include airborne early warning and control aircraft as well as jammers.
This new system is intended to detect and destroy airborne targets at a distance of up to 400 km (twice the range of the MIM-104 Patriot, and 2-2.5 times greater than the previous S-300PMU system). The main difference between the PMU-2 and the S-400 is greater engagement range of the latter, about 250 miles against aircraft versus 125 miles. The anti-missile capability of the system had been increased to the limits established by the ABM Treaty demarcation agreements -- it can intercept targets with velocities of up to 4.8 km/sec, corresponding to a ballistic missile range of 3,500 km. By some accounts the 40N6 has an estimated speed of around 4.8 kilometers (3 miles) per second [Mach 14]. Other sources report an average flight speed of 1190 m / s [Mach 3.5].
During the MAKS 2003 exhibition in Moscow it was reported that state trials of the 40N6 were expected to continue through 2004, in the hope that the S-400 could finally enter service some time in 2005. As of mid-2007 work on the 40N6 missile was still under way, and this missile was to be incorporated into the S-400 batteries no sooner than 2008. Until then, the S-400 would remain little more than another incremental upgrade to the S-300P family.
It is possible that the 40N6 may never be deployed. Almaz began work on an S-500, described in September 2002 as an improvement of the Phase 2 S-400, with new missiles and radar. As of 2007 it appeared that the merged Antey-Almaz was working on the S-500 Samoderzhets (Autocrat) system, that will include elements from both the S-400 system and the long range S-300VM (Antey 2500).
Russian Ministry of Defense has tested long-range missiles for anti-aircraft missile system S-400. This was announced on 04 April 2015 by deputy commander of the Air and Space Defense (ASD), Major-General Kirill Makarov. According to the deputy commander, the range of the target was slightly less than 400 km. Full-range rocket launch was not possible due to the insufficient size of the test range, the general explained. He noted that now the range of the S-400 is 250 km. "With the adoption adopted a new missile, which is now undergoing state tests, the destructive force of the S-400 will be up to 400 kilometers," - said Makarov.
Russia completed the state tests of the 40N6E long-range missile for the S-400 surface-to-air missile system, a source in the defense-industrial complex told Tass 03 July 2018. "The state tests of the long-range 40N6E missile of the S-400 system were completed at the Kapustin Yar test site, the interdepartmental commission recognized them as successful, and a relevant act was signed," the source said. He specified that "the missile can be adopted for service until the end of the summer."
According to the Ministry of Defense, 40N6E is capable of hitting targets for a maximum range of 400 km. According to unconfirmed reports, the maximum firing height of the missile is 185 km. The installation lot 40N6E, as reported in open sources, was released in late 2013. In 2015, the Ministry of Defense for the first time announced the successful shooting of this missile on an air target. S-400 "Triumph" - anti-aircraft missile system of large and medium range. It is designed to defeat the means of air attack and reconnaissance (including aircraft made using stealth technology), as well as any other air targets. To date, the system can fire at a range of up to 250 km.
Long-range anti-aircraft guided missile 40N6 system S-400 "Triumph" adopted by the Russian army. "The long-range missile 40N6 [40N6E - export version] was put into service, all the necessary documents were signed in September, after which the Ministry of Defense began purchasing these missiles," the agency’s source said 18 October 2018. “In total, under the state armament program until 2027, it is planned to purchase over a thousand 40N6 to equip the existing S-400 Aerospace Forces with existing regiments and to re-equip them,” the source added.
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