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Red Air Force - Civil War

During the Civil War and military intervention in Russia (1917-1922), the air force, part of the air defense of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army (Red Army) and the White armies, performed in the form the same tasks as in the first world war, but their content had become greater. During the war, the Air Force operational art was further developed, and tactics of different kinds of aircraft improved the basic principles of their combat use. United in the aviation group on the main directions of land forces, the air force, and later the squadron, significantly increased their efficiency. Parts of air defense protected the important objects in the immediate rear of troops and rear areas of the country.

The leading role in the leadership of Aviation and Aeronautics of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Military Air Fleet (RKKVVF) was assigned to the Field Control Aviation and Aeronautics of the army and the relevant military authorities on fronts, as part of the control and inspection of the air force.

Over all the years of the Civil War, no less than 2400 aircraft passed through RKKVVF. Of these, 558 were from the aircraft factories, and about 250 were captured from the enemy. By the spring of 1921 there were left about 400 combat vehicles in battle formation (taking into account the wear and tear of combat and other losses). The numbers of aircraft in the fleet of the White armies was much inferior Red Air Fleet. According to archival sources, the Allies handed over in the white aircraft to 200 units (140 - English, 60 - French). By mid-1919 the total number of aircraft in the air force White armies was 441-468 combat units.

The struggle for supremacy in the air, the experience of the First World War, was fought mainly by destroying enemy aircraft in aerial combat. During the war it officially recorded 131 air battle between red and white pilots and their allies. On account RKKVVF there were 9 shot down enemy planes, air force White armies - 3 aircraft and balloon 2, British Aviation - Aircraft 2 and 3 of the balloon, the Polish-American Aviation - aircraft and balloon 3. For Military Merit in 1919-1921. Order of the Red Banner (the highest award of the RSFSR) awarded 216 pilots, 19 of them twice, to PH Mezheraup, YN Moses, SA Monasteries and IU Pavlov.

Mostly they kept the medals the old Russian army (primarily white Eastern Front and the Armed Forces of South Russia). For example, the procedure for awarding the distinguished soldiers, officers and generals of the Armed Forces of South Russia was defined in a special order from the commander August 24, 1919 number 2016. The Russian Army Lieutenant General Baron PN Wrangel in 1920 established a special Order of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, 2nd degree which was awarded, among others, and flight crews (Major-General V. Tkachev, Lieutenant L. Baidak et al.). Also 4 Squadron (1st, 3rd, 5th and 8th) awarded aviation flag with ribbons and a sign of this order.

After the defeat of the White armies in the Civil War, most Russian pilots have emigrated abroad, the smaller part voluntarily switched sides Red Army and took part in further fighting. Some of them for their courage and heroism have received government awards and encouraged the command. Order bearers included former White pilots: SY Korf (twice), MA Volkovoynov (twice), AD Muratov and others.




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