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The First Fixed Wing Aircraft

Taking into account international experience in the construction of the air force, a number of prominent Russian military leaders (General of Cavalry Baron AV Kaulbars, the Grand Duke, Vice Admiral Alexander Romanov et al.) initiated the idea of creating in Russia Military Air Fleet (air force) on the basis of different types of aircraft. It received broad support in the legislative and executive power structures of the country as well as among the scientific community. It was envisaged, along with military aeronautics, actively develop the aviation business. By the spring of 1911 a council of war with the Minister of War approved the draft of the Regulation on service of aircraft and squadron staff aeronautic company. In the future, this decision was carried out by the Council of Ministers and the State Duma.

The main priorities in the formation of the air force was given to military aviation, which is reflected in a memo to the Minister of War cavalry general VA Sukhomlinov Emperor Nicholas II About the statement of proposals and development of aeronautic business in the Russian Army" (1911). In the coming years, it was supposed to bring the total number of aircraft to 45 units (540 aircraft).

On July 30 (August 12), 1912 the special body of military control of aviation and aeronautics was established in the Russian Armed Forces. This day is officially designated in the Russian Federation as the Day of the Air Force.

At the same time measures were taken on the sovereignty of the airspace in the national boundaries of Russia in the framework formed in those years, international air law. The protection of air borders of the state were first enshrined in the law of the Russian Empire on July 5, 1912 "On amending and supplementing the existing statutes of treason through espionage" approved by Emperor Nicholas II.

November 29 the same year the Council of Ministers granted the right to military authorities "... by prior agreement with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs ... prohibit foreign aeronauts to ... flight of our western border ...". The order came into force on January 14, 1913, giving effect to the special no-fly areas in the border zone. They touched each and every foreign pilots without first receiving permission from the Russian authorities on the crossing of the state border.

When pilots attempt illegal entry into the specific areas and ignore the immediate planting requirements immediately followed by measures of force action. Responsibility for the protection of air borders of the state assigned to units of border guards. Later the ban was extended until 14 January 1915 Maritime Authority also introduced restrictive measures by banning from September 1913 any foreign aircraft flying over the Gulf of Finland.

In the summer of 1912 the government transferred all matters of aeronautics and aviation ground forces under the jurisdiction of the Main Directorate of the General Staff, as part of which the order of the military departments of 12 August 1912 # 397 special aeronautic portion is formed (Head - Major-General MI Shishkevich). Afterwards, this date (August 12) Presidential Decree of 29 August 1997 for number 949 was officially installed as the Day of the Russian Air Force.

In accordance with the "general plan of organization aeronautics and aviation in the army", approved by the emperor of March 1, 1913, held the first reorganization of the air force, in which the aircraft is completely separated from the aeronautics and became an independent structure of the Military Air Force. By the beginning of World War I in its composition there were 39 squadrons: the fleet consisted of 263 aeronautic machines, 46 airships and tethered kite.

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Page last modified: 30-08-2018 17:21:23 ZULU