Project 885 Graney-M / Project 885M Yasen - Kazan class
Project 885M Yasen Kazan multipurpose nuclear submarine undergoing state tests differs markedly from the lead ship of the PLARK series (nuclear submarine with cruise missiles) Severodvinsk. The Kazan submarine of project 885M received a number of characteristic differences from the lead ship of the series. He became shorter, her nose was pointed, and the number of torpedo tubes was reduced. In addition, the submarine was equipped with installations for protection against enemy ammunition. The same modernization awaits all subsequent nuclear submarines of this series.
In June 2019, Christopher Carlson, a former expert analyst with the US Department of Defense Intelligence Agency, published a comparative analysis of the Kazan submarines (Yasen-M project and Severodvinsk project (Yasen project). According to this analysis, which was online only briefly and the sources of which were not disclosed, the Kazan submarine of the Yasen-M project is shorter than the Severodvinsk nuclear submarine on 8.3-9.1 m. The total length of the submarine "Kazan" project "Ash-m" 130 meters, up to 9 meters less than submarine "Severodvinsk" project "Ash", the length of 139 meters.
Most Russian reports state Kazan is 10 meters shorter with 4 meters being taken from the living compartment. As Kazan started her sea trials, additional photos also indicated the bow was shorter than Severodvinsk. According to available data from some open sources, the crew compartment has been reduced by 4 meters, the reactor compartment by 0.8-1.6 meters, and the bow compartment by approximately 3.5 meters. The reduction in teh crewe compartment length is consistent with Russian news reports that Kazan had a compliment of 64, while Severodvinsk was reported to have a crew of 85–90.
Projects 885 and 885M use a mixed construction system, when the lightweight body “covers” only part of the sturdy nose part to reduce noise. It is made of high strength low magnetic steel. This allows Kazan to dive to a depth of more than 600 m, which makes it practically unattainable for all types of modern anti-submarine weapons. Conventional submarines plunge at 400 m.
"The second submarine will have improved electronics and fire-control systems, and will be built exclusively with Russian-made materials and components," Sevmash spokeswoman Anastasia Nikitinskaya said. The submarine's armament will include 24 cruise missiles, including the 3M51 Alfa SLCM, the SS-NX-26 Oniks SLCM or the SS-N-21 Granat/Sampson SLCM. It will also have eight torpedo tubes as well as mines and anti-ship missiles such as SS-N-16 Stallion.
For firing it uses eight vertical launchers and SLTs. In the arsenal of submarines - the most modern Russian cruise missiles "Caliber" and anti-ship "Onyx". The firing range of the first is more than 1,500 km, which allows such boats to keep at gunpoint territories remote from the sea or ocean coast. "Onyx" are designed to combat surface naval groups and single ships in the face of strong fire and electronic countermeasures, as well as for strikes against ground targets.
In the future, the boat will be able to use hypersonic Zircons. They can accelerate to Mach 8 and hit targets at ranges of up to 500 km. The speed of Mach 2.5 is the limit for modern air defense systems, which will allow missiles to overcome any defense. Also, the boat can take on board anti-submarine torpedoes, which will be needed to destroy enemy submarines.
The nuclear submarine reactor is manufactured according to a new technology: the primary coolant pipes are located inside its body. This arrangement is considered innovative, as it significantly reduces the likelihood of accidents and radioactive exposure to the crew. Without recharging, the reactor can last 25–30 years, which is comparable to the service life of the submarine itself. This will greatly simplify its operation.
The Kazan features more advanced equipment and weaponry than the Severodvinsk, which had been under construction since 1993. Russia planned to have at least eight Yasen class cruise-missile carrying attack boats in its submarine fleet.
Russia's latest Project 885M Yasen-class attack submarine will have an advanced sonar system allowing it to detect enemy ships at an early stage, the submarine's engineering bureau said on 26 July 2013. The Novosibirsk, the third of eight Yasen-class boats (designated Graney-class by NATO), is to be laid down at the Sevmash shipyard near the White Sea. The boat's designer, the Malakhit Marine Engineering Bureau company said ahead of the ceremony that the new Yasen-M will be have an advanced design that would significantly increase its ability to detect enemy vessels at speeds far higher speed that those of its predecessors.
The updated submarine received a more pointed nose. In the numerous photographs of Kazan, this cannot be discerned, since most of it is hidden under water. In addition, the number of torpedo tubes (TA) on the submarine decreased from 10 to 8. It is noteworthy that for projects 885 and 885M, for the first time in the practice of domestic shipbuilding, TAs are located not in the bow of the ship, but next to the compartment of the central post.
Its bow section is "acoustically clean" and will be entirely dedicated to housing sonar systems, with the torpedo systems relocated to another part of the boat, according to the company. In order to reduce noise and increase its stealth capability, new power supply and acoustic defense systems have been developed for the boat, Malakhit said. In addition to the torpedo tubes, the Yasen class will be armed with a multirole missile system including a vertical-launcher for cruise missiles. Both the torpedo and missile tubes could be used "for a variety of weapons without being specially re-equipped," the company said.
In the nose closer to the compartment of the central post are launchers for launching anti-torpedoes. Also, the submarine increased the size of the forage plumage. Izvestia wrote that the length of the submarine was reduced by 10 m, and the living compartment was cut by 4 m. These design changes could be made through the use of more advanced and compact electronic weapons and automation equipment.
By October 2020, preparations were at Sevmash (part of the USC) underway for the introduction of modular technology for creating nuclear submarines. It is a method of assembling ships from large blocks loaded with equipment. It is assumed that the use of modular technology will make it possible to reduce the labor intensity and terms of building nuclear submarines.
Nowadays, a modular-aggregate method is used in production, which was introduced during the construction of third-generation nuclear powered ships. According to this method, the finished, but not yet tested, block sections of the future nuclear submarine are transferred from the hull-welding production to the slipway, from which blocks are formed that pass the stage of hydraulic tests. After its completion, the sections are again disconnected. This technology lengthens the construction period of the ship. When using the block-modular method, it is planned to reduce not only the slipway period, but also the costs due to the transfer of a colossal amount of work from the slipway to specialized workshops.
"In 2016, under the leadership of Sevmash General Director Mikhail Budnichenko, initiative studies of a new technology for building nuclear submarines were started", said the project manager, head of the PKB bureau Alexander Spiridonov. "A working group was created with the participation of submarine designers. Within the framework of the USC, a project was opened to create a block-modular method and the transition to the construction of new generation boats using this technology".
To introduce a new method of building ships at Sevmash, production facilities are being modernized, a new infrastructure is being created. It will also be necessary to build new logistics for the supply of equipment and services. Now a project for the implementation of the block-modular method is being developed and is undergoing a discussion stage in the relevant departments. In the future, Sevmash may become the first enterprise where this innovative technology will be applied in submarine shipbuilding.
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