Project 885 / 885M - Combat Systems
A new principle of layout of equipment of energy compartments was developed in SPBMM “Malachite” on the topic of research work “Old Fashioned”. In this case, the well-known principle of the so-called zonal blocks, unfastened with the hull of the boat by means of shock absorbers, complemented by a frame-mass - a massive structural element with a high degree of inertness and high resonant frequency. This element due to its mechanical inertia is able to dampen vibrations of power plant equipment installed on it, auxiliary equipment of cooling and power supply systems (also amortized on their own frames). The entire general frame of the zone block is additionally lined with vibration-absorbing panels. It is assumed that this principle will help in the future to reduce the noise levels of series boats by 10-15 dB in certain ranges. In support of scientific research to reduce physical fields on a new generation nuclear submarine in 1987-1993, the Karmon-1E floating laboratory was constructed at the Admiralty Shipyards under the design of the Lazurit Design and Design Bureau. Its use was supposed to be at the training ground 1 of the Central Research Institute of Defense in Primorsk.
The composition of general ship equipment also includes: the magnetic field compensation system of the ship AMK-641 (project 885M), non-piston thermal low-noise compressors KSVA, desalination plant PS2-5, fire extinguishing and alarm system "Fakel-1" and many others.
All combat and technical ship components are combined into a single Okrug automated combat control system (ASBU), which replaced the combat information and control systems (CIMS), which have a significantly lower degree of integration. One of the main subsystems of ASBU is the Bulat-M shipboard control system for technical equipment and the Luga-2 electric power control system developed in 1986 and later the Luga-M (1995). They include local control systems, self-protection of electrical equipment and technical diagnostics, the Cosine-M centralized power supply system, etc. As a result, the complex operator can directly obtain detailed information about the technical condition of the ship and about malfunctions in the system itself from the console. In addition, The SSs take over the functions of maintaining electronic logbooks and organize the actions of personnel in emergency situations. When creating ship electronic means, the so-called "Open architecture", which implies the use of common industrial standards of computer technology, which allowed to reduce the cost of avionics.
Thus, standardized on-board computers of the Baguette series were used in the Euromechanics 6U construct with the VME system bus, MIL-STD-1553B and Ethernet interfaces, international standards and the QNX operating system. implying the use of common industrial standards for computer technology, which allowed to reduce the cost of avionics. Thus, standardized on-board computers of the Baguette series were used in the Euromechanics 6U construct with the VME system bus, MIL-STD-1553B and Ethernet interfaces, international standards and the QNX operating system. implying the use of common industrial standards for computer technology, which allowed to reduce the cost of avionics. Thus, standardized on-board computers of the Baguette series were used in the Euromechanics 6U construct with the VME system bus, MIL-STD-1553B and Ethernet interfaces, international standards and the QNX operating system.
Project 885 is equipped with a series of new electronic equipment. To conduct effective combat operations in a group, the nuclear submarine is equipped with a sound transmission system for transmitting tactical data in real time over long distances based on the principle of frequency modulation of the signal. In addition, a number of new models of communication and navigation systems are provided, including the Synthesis satellite communication system, new non-penetrating optoelectronic retractable devices (optic masts) instead of periscopes, the MTK-115-2 television system, etc. Among the systems that have proven themselves and worked out on early projects of nuclear submarines, the radar complex MRKP-59 Radian-U should be noted.
One of the main complexes of electronic weapons of Soviet and Russian nuclear submarines of the 4th generation is the 3P05 Irtysh digital sonar system developed by the Morphizpribor Research Institute with the Amphora spherical antenna occupying the entire bow of the boat. Such a solution made it possible to significantly increase the aperture of the antenna and thereby increase its efficiency already at this level compared to the previous generation Skat-3 HAC. The development of the spherical antenna of the HAC has been carried out since 1978 with model testing at the Neman floating laboratory in 1982.
The version of this complex installed on the project 885 was named “Irtysh-Amphora-Ash”. R&D on the development of the SAC was carried out from 1980 to 1987 under the leadership of the Chief Designer S. A. Smirnov and their results were partially used also to improve the Skat-3 complex. In 1988, the Flagship program, coordinated with the Navy, was launched with the aim of creating the Irtysh family of SACs for all promising nuclear submarines of the 4th generation, the crown of which was the 1998 field test of the central part of the Irtysh using signal processors of a new generation.
For this, several years earlier, the KS-403 Kazan submarine of project 09780 Axon-2 was converted. Moreover, a breakthrough for Russian developers of such equipment was the fact that for the first time complete processing of hydroacoustic information was provided, including the formation of the directivity characteristics of acoustic antennas exclusively by software. It was also possible to achieve full automation of the complex. To implement the program classification of goals in 1985, the electronic library of acoustic data “Ajax-M” was developed. However, it is worth noting the fact that these constructive solutions are characteristic of foreign analogues developed a decade earlier, and spherical antennas began to be used on American nuclear submarines already in the 1960s.
An interesting feature of SJSC “Irtysh” is the presence in it of a durable waterproof maintenance-free capsule directly near the main antenna, in which there is equipment for the primary processing of information from hydrophones and multi-channel ADCs. Further, it enters through the fiber optic cables to the boat’s PC, which significantly reduced the overall level of electromagnetic interference in the system.
However, in addition to the Amphora antenna, the boat is equipped with a number other sensors. The two largest of them are located directly behind the fairing of the main antenna. At least four more antennas are dispersed in the central and aft of the hull. The complex is supplemented by a towed GAS antenna with an outlet device in the vertical tail of the boat, which allowed us to get rid of the drop-shaped gondola Bugas, typical of the Soviet 3rd generation submarines. In addition, there are a number of auxiliary hydroacoustic tools integrated into the complex.
The production of the new SJC is engaged in the Taganrog plant “Surf”. It is assumed that the installation of the first three levels of equipment of the complex was carried out from February 2005 to July 2006. Since 2007, installation and commissioning of the 4th and 5th levels was carried out, including devices 1E, 1M4, 1MK, 16G and hydrophones. To ensure navigation in Arctic waters and the safety of movement in ice for future modifications of the 885th project, the possibility of replacing a fiberglass fairing with a HAK by a metal one (presumably from titanium alloys) is being considered. In addition to hydroacoustic means for illuminating the underwater environment, the nuclear submarine is equipped with non-acoustic means, such as the MNK-200-2 Tukan wake detection system developed by OJSC Granit-7, the earlier versions of which proved to be good for Project 971 nuclear submarines.
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