Project 885 - Background
As part of the work on the 4th generation strike nuclear submarines, along with the development of anti-submarine project 957 at the Lazurit Design Bureau, the Malachite Special Design Bureau of Motor Vehicles since 1980, under the supervision of Chief Designer V.N.Pyalov, work was carried out on project 885 (08850, code number "Ash").
According to the initial tactical and technical task, the Ash-tree was to fulfill the tasks of combating combat groups of surface ships and transport ships. Similarly to project 957, this required the abandonment of the two-hull architecture and the requirements of surface unsinkability with the flooding of one of the compartments. The technical project was, according to plans, prepared in the late 1980s, however, then, due to a change in the naval command structures and a qualitative change in the doctrine of the fleet, project 885 was radically revised. In parallel, in 1987, At the NPO Mashinostroyeniya, a new Onyx anti-ship missile system was launched for flight design tests, which was to become common for a series of air, ground, surface and underwater carriers.
Attempts to unify fleet technology forced the Navy leadership in 1989 to abandon a series of highly specialized projects, which included the themes "Cedar" and "Mercury" in favor of a single truly multi-purpose project. The appearance in the US Navy in 1985 of the multi-purpose submarines of the Los Angeles type of the Providence sub-series with the vertical silos of the Tomahawk SKR in the bow of the hull explains the fleet’s desire to get a boat with similar combat capabilities. All together, this led to the fact that in 1989 a decision was made on the retrofitting of the Project 885 nuclear submarines with unified silo launchers for the Onyx anti-ship missiles and the Granat missile launcher, and later for prospective missile systems. By that time, "Ash" was in the final stages of a technical project and its complete processing was completed only in 1991. The new tactics of using the submarine implied the functions of anti-submarine defense and delivering missile attacks on land and enemy ships.
Shipbuilding plans for the period from 1990 to 2000 construction was planned for six to nine units of project 885. In addition, some sources state that the total volume of the Ash series should have reached even 30 units. However, the implementation of these plans was hindered by the collapse of the Soviet Union and the ensuing financial and political difficulties. Nevertheless, on December 10, 1993, the lead ship of the series was included in the lists of the Navy ships under the name "Severodvinsk", and on December 21 of the same year, it was laid down at the Northern Machine-Building Enterprise under serial number 160. The boat received tactical letter K-329, and in NATO it was given the code name "Granay". It was supposed to launch Severodvinsk in 1996 and put it into operation in 1998. In the future, this period was moved to 2000 and even to 2005. Instead, in the absence of funding, its construction was completely frozen in 1996.
Long idle time touched the submarine "Severodvinsk", which then existed only in the form of disparate hull structures and individual counterpart supplies of equipment, led to the fact that by the beginning of the 2000s. the project began to become obsolete in relation to the on-board electronic equipment planned for it and part of the design decisions. In addition, a series of new weapons was being developed, which could be used on the 885 project. In this regard, the another adjustment of the technical project was required, which took into account both these factors and difficulties with sub-contractors ["counterparty"] supplies from the countries of the former USSR, which turned out to be practically abroad.
The new generation steam turbine unit was not ready, which also affected the adjustment of the project. Corresponding changes were made in the early 2000s, after which the construction of nuclear submarines was resumed, brought into line with the new requirements. Already in 2005, the hull was completed on the first boat, and on December 1 of the same year both crews were formed, who from 2006 to 2007 underwent training at the 270th Navy Training Center in Sosnovy Bor.
In 2006, a block steam turbine unit was delivered to the NSR, and in the State order for 2008, an amount of about 4 billion rubles was allocated for the construction of Severodvinsk. Together, this allowed expectations that the launch of the first Ash was supposed to take place in 2008, but this period was subsequently postponed several times due to the difficulties caused by the large number of new structural solutions and technological problems.
Ultimately, after the ceremony of the boat’s withdrawal from the construction workshop was officially scheduled for December 21, 2009, it turned out that the Sukhon transfer dock, to which the output was to be made, needed urgent repairs and, therefore, the event was rescheduled for May 7, 2010. But, even this date was later adjusted. Due to the fire on the boat, it was withdrawn from the float shop only on June 15, and launched on June 24. The acceptance of the nuclear submarines was planned no earlier than October 2010, and most likely for 2011, based in the Northern Fleet, presumably as part of the 11th submarine division of the Northern Fleet in Zaozersk. At the moment, there are based boats of projects 949A and 971RTMK. For the training of personnel of the 4th generation boats and, in particular, project 885.
During the construction of the boat, a total of 4 commanders changed for both of its crews: from June 18, 2005 to 2008, the captain of the 1st rank I.I. Gorelov (1st crew) and from 2005 to 2006 commanded the boat. P.N.Shulga (2nd crew). Later, after 2006, they were replaced by Captain 1st Rank R.A. Patskevichus (2nd crew) and after 2008 Captain 1st Rank S. Mityaev (1st crew). In addition, the 1st crew includes art. Assistant Commander 2nd-Class Captain R.V. Agapov, Deputy Commander for Educational Work 2nd-Class Captain D.Yu. Klimov, Assistant Commander 3rd-Class Captain SV Serov and BC-5 Commander 3rd-Class Captain rank P.V.Luchenkov. The 2nd crew also includes Art. Assistant Commander 2nd-Class Captain V.A. Lomov, Deputy Commander for Educational Work 3rd-Class Captain A.I. Fedorov, Assistant Commander 3rd-Class Captain P.Yu.
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