Project 885 Yasen / Graney / Granay - Severodvinsk class - Design
The Yasenís operational characteristics allow using it in all the areas of the World Ocean without any restrictions for its key parameters and systems. Over 10,000 rubber elements cover the subís surface. The rubber cover is one of the elements of reducing the vesselís acoustic signature. Thanks to the low-noise propeller, the sub runs under the water without noise and vibration that would easily expose the vessel.
the Yasen is an attack submarine. It is armed with supersonic cruise missiles and universal deep-water homing torpedoes to fight warships. The Yasenís launchers are universal. Thanks to that, the submarine is capable of massively firing cruise missiles of various functional designation, including long-range weapons and against coastal targets without altering its radio-electronic armament. Depending on the weapon payload, the submarine is capable of accomplishing assignments against single ships and naval taskforces, carrier groups, surface ships and coastal targets, and also engaging in anti-submarine warfare. The Yasen submarine can fight under the water on its own and provide cover for Borei-class strategic missile-carrying subs. Compared to previous-generation submarines, the Yasen features a principally new architectural and design layout: torpedo tubes are located behind the central post compartment instead of the subís forepart as usual.
Russian analyst Mikhail Lukanin told Radio Sputnik that the Project 885 Yasen class is impressive. Armed with cruise, antiship and anti-submarine missiles, the highly autonomous nuclear-powered multipurpose attack submarine is a force to be reckoned with. It is fast, silent and deep-diving. Thanks to its unique features, the Yasen class "came as an unpleasant surprise to the United States," Lukanin observed. "Americans are concerned that our silent subs could largely neutralize [Washington's] ballistic missile defense system.... Russia has traditionally pursued a defensive strategy. All Russian weapons serve for defensive purposes. The Americans, on the other hand, adhere to an offensive approach that is based on suppressing an adversary with their might".
The crew of the Russian boat is 64 sailors against 120 in the Virginia. the Russian nuclear submarine dives 150 meters deeper - 600 meters [2000 feet] instead of 450 meters [1500 feet]. At equal running speed the 885 "Ash" has greater autonomy compared to the Virginia.
Compared with the Virginia "Ash" equipped with more powerful weapons. The Russian nuclear submarine of project 885 has ten torpedo 533-650 mm caliber tubes with torpedoes "Physicist" and "Hard". On the boat there are eight vertical launchers for four missiles each, completed by "Onyx" and "Calibre" cruise missiles. The Yasen class can be outfitted with either 32 Oniks supersonic anti-ship cruise missiles or 40 Kalibr-PL anti-ship, anti-submarine and land attack cruise missiles. In total the American boat carries 12 Tomahawk-type missiles and 26 torpedoes, and four torpedo systems [the Block V boats will have a total of 40 Tomahawks]. In the long term, "Ash" will cruise sea-based missiles with a range of 5,500 kilometers, twice the range of the best modifications of the flight of the American Tomahawk.
It is believed that the noise level of the American Virginia submarines is lower than the Russian boats. In order to achieve this indicator, the American submarine uses new coating system isolated decks and new construction of the power plant. However, according to Russian experts, in comparison with the fourth-generation Russian submarines of Project 885, the noise level of the American Virginia is about the same.
The original idea of the "universal silos" was a design with a multi-task profile, making it possible to change the profile of weapons loaded to adjust to several missions. It features a significant cruise missile capability with eight vertical launch tubes for RKB-500 aft of the sail. The multipurpose Severodvinsk nuclear submarine program, being built under the 855-Yasen Program, was to carry eight launching devices with 24 P-100 Onyx high-precision stealth anti-ship cruise missiles. Subsequently it was reported that the Severodvinsk will be armed with 24 SS-N-26 Oniks missiles arranged in eight triple SM-315 launchers. [Other reports suggest it carried twenty SS-N-17, but this seemed improbable].
The hull is made of low magnetic steel, with a spherical bow sonar. According to Western intelligence estimates, the Severodvinsk was assessed as probably being only slightly quieter than the improved Akula. It would have with expanded missions with better anti-submarine capabilities (the first Russian spherical sonar, much improved sensors of other types, data fusion techniques, etc).
The submarine's main weapon is the 3M55 Oniks (Yakhont) supersonic anti-ship missile, with a range of up to 350 km. A multiple launch of 24 of these missiles could present a serious problem even for a U.S. carrier force with a powerful air defense system.
Yasen-class submarines are equipped with the Russian equivalent of the U.S. Tomahawk missile, the Granat, which has a firing range of up to 3,000 km and, just as its U.S. counterpart, can carry a nuclear warhead. In addition, the new submarine has 3M14 Kalibr missiles, with a firing range of over 500 km, enabling Project-885 submarines to carry out massive high-precision strikes against ground targets.
Through its torpedo tubes, the submarine is able to launch 3M54 Biryuza anti-ship missiles and 91R anti-submarine missiles, as well as having the capacity to drop mines. As part of its self-defense capability, the Severodvinsk has special devices for shooting down various decoys and, possibly, a system of active anti-torpedo defense, capable of destroying enemy torpedoes with special small-size anti-torpedoes.
In his book Cold War Submarines, American naval analyst Norman Polmar ended the chapter on the latest U.S. and Soviet nuclear submarine projects by concluding that there was a lot of evidence to support the view that Soviet fourth-generation submarines had reached a level in many aspects equal to or surpassing that of their American rivals.
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