Project 1164 Atlant / Slava class - Weaponry
The main armament of the cruiser - a complex impact missile "Basalt" management system "Argon-1164" (antenna position is on the nasal side of the foremast). The complex is intended to destroy important single and multiple surface targets of the enemy. It can hold a single and salvo firing. Eight double nenavodyaschihsya launchers CM-248 are located pobortno (tilt angle - 30 degrees). Ammunition - 16 RCC. Issuance targeting for firing is provided satellite data reception equipment "Corvette-5", as well as the equipment receiving the information both from the Tu-95RTS, and from his own ship helicopter reconnaissance and target designation. Maximum range - 550 km. Warhead - explosive or nuclear-cumulative.
On the third cruiser Project 1164 "Red Ukraine" was established instead of the basalt complex "Volcano" with a maximum firing range of 700 km. Reloading missiles "Basalt" and "Volcano" is produced only in the database, using raketozagruzochnyh devices ..
The main armament of the ship, under which it, in fact, began to design the missile complex P-500 "Basalt". The 4K-80 cruise missile was developed for it with a dual purpose: for nuclear submarines of the first generation, with a surface launch and for surface ships, starting in March 1963. In 1975, the complex was put into service with submarines, gradually replacing the P-6 missiles, in addition, it was installed on Kiev-type cruisers and recommended itself well.
The most curious thing was that in parallel with the creation of "Basalt", the naval target designation system "Success" was being developed with reconnaissance aircraft and satellites that covered the entire surface situation, issuing the composition of the warrant and the coordinates of targets to missile submarines. Understanding, nevertheless, that such a system is easily vulnerable in combat conditions, our designers have laid into the rocket systems (from Basalt and beyond) completely unusual functions that no one in the world has. The complexes have become reconnaissance-shock.
This is how Basalt works: after launch (a full volley of eight rockets) and a wolf pack, the Argon control system is adjusted in the direction, then goes independently towards the target, with the leading rocket going higher (up to 5 km) searches the target in a passive way (it is possible and active), by intercepting radar signals, etc. According to the data obtained, it corrects the course, "dropping" information in the millimeter range (it can not be tracked) to the rest of the rockets, which go at an altitude of 40-50 meters. For the first time, an active jamming system was installed on cruise missiles, which is activated when the enemy’s airborne targets of the own radar are detected.
Even if this most noticeable rocket was shot down, another would take its place, with exactly the same task. When approaching, the lead rocket chooses the largest target and sends the one with the special ammunition to it, then divides the remaining marks between the entire “flock”, decreases itself, all include homing heads and crash into the sides of the ships. Further, it is not difficult to imagine, nevertheless, the mass of the rocket is 4.8 tons, the flight speed is 2900 km / h, and plus to this one ton of explosive with the remains of rocket fuel, or SBCh! Targeting, of course, is desirable, but judging by the tactics of the rocket, you can make a volley in the direction of the alleged enemy without any targeting, using the “shot-and-forget” method.
The reconnaissance and shock complex chief designer was V.N.Chelomey, The same OKB-52, according to a government decree of May 15, 1979, began to develop an improved reconnaissance and shock complex "Vulcan", in the same dimensions and with the same technical solutions. The ZM-70 missile of the P-1000 complex had a turbojet engine similar to “Basalt”, but due to the use of new solutions (more powerful starting aggregates, titanium and other structural materials, partial removal of armor protection, etc.), the firing range increased from 550 to 700 km. (For example, anti-ship missiles from other countries have a range: Tomahawk 560 km, Gabriel 200 km, Harpoon 130 km, Exochet 70 km, Sea Killer 45 km).
Naturally, to compare these cutter "rackets" (except, perhaps, "Tomahawka" with a nuclear warhead) with Soviet complexes is difficult — one Basalt-type missile is more expensive than the cost of an aircraft, but one is enough to cause unacceptable damage to a Ticonderoga-class ship. To inflict unacceptable damage to the Glory-class cruiser, according to Western estimates, it requires three anti-ship Tomahawks (with conventional warheads of 454 kg explosives) or six Harpoons (with warheads of 227 kg each).
The Vulkan complex was put into service on December 18, 1987, installed on the third cruiser of the project 1164 Chervona Ukraine and was planned on the fourth: it is possible that with time, as the missiles were manufactured, the first two will be re-equipped. After all, it was created for the gradual installation on boats with a surface launch instead of the P-6 and Basalt.
The reloading of the Basalt and Vulkan missiles is carried out only in the base, with the help of cancer-loading devices, this laborious and laborious operation requires special reloading equipment, qualified specialists and quiet weather.
For the achievement of superiority in the air is the unique anti-aircraft missile complex collective defense "Fort", which provides a zone free from the actions of enemy aircraft, with a radius of up to 90 km. The response time of the complex in the duty mode is 16 to 19 seconds, the multichannel rotating antenna of the phased array radar provides simultaneous tracking of 6 targets and pointing two missiles at them. Vertical dynamic start (with an interval of 3 seconds) makes the launch safe, since the impact of the flame on the ship's superstructures is eliminated, and the unit with the defect does not remain in the cellar anyway. The complex is worked out and reliable, but there are also troubles here, in the summer of 1990, during the tests of the “Chervona Ukrainy” near Sevastopol, The shooting was unsuccessful. The rocket left the trajectory.
The "fort" (analogue of the widely known land S-300) is intended for the destruction of high-speed, maneuverable and small-sized targets in the entire altitude range, up to ultra-low (that is, it can serve as an anti-missile self-defense complex), as well as medium-sized sea targets. Ships of this type have a total of 64 missiles in 8 drums on board. The composition of the launcher B-204 also includes boot devices that install the transport and launch containers with missiles from the deck of the ship in the buried drums guides. This operation is almost completely mechanized, which speeds up and facilitates the loading of missile ammunition.
Fort missiles can be stored in the TLC for 10 years without checks and adjustments. (similar to the well-known land S-300) is intended for the destruction of high-speed, maneuverable and small-sized targets in the entire altitude range, up to ultra-low (that is, it can serve as an anti-missile self-defense complex), as well as medium-sized sea targets.
Another Osa-M anti-aircraft complex (chief designer VP Efremov) is designed for self-defense against low-flying anti-ship missiles, airplanes, helicopters, as well as for hitting surface targets at a range from 1 to 10, and up to 5 km in altitude. The complex as well as the "Fort" independently solves the tasks of hitting targets, only one-channel, it can work on one goal. So, if 8 “Harpoons” go to the ship at the same time (and now they will not release one rocket to hit a large target), then the rest of the family must be fought by other means.
The big disadvantage is that single-channel radars perform electromechanical redirection to another target, with its subsequent capture, which takes time, as a rule, which exceeds the possible missile approach interval. Reloading launchers further increase the overall response time, bringing it to 30-35 seconds. The amount of explosive in a rocket is not enough. Conclusion one the need to install this complex on the ship is controversial. A large ammunition bribes, which, however, can go to the bottom with the ship due to the low rate of fire. It would be better added "Forts". On the other hand, when the ship was designed, the designers of the missiles promised a new multi-channel air defense missile system in the dimensions of the "Wasps", with a quad launcher.
But in the process of creation, the ideology changed, goals and objectives for the new complex and as a result, the idea of combining was discarded as obsolete, but the Wasp remained on the cruiser. In principle, in the process of serial construction of ships, this SAM was removed and replaced by the “Dirk”.
Launch of the Osa missiles is carried out with a twin-beam guided launcher ZIF-122, ammunition for two installations of 40 missiles. The complex includes a control system modes and operation; Push-type launcher with a system for storing and reloading missiles; anti-aircraft missiles 9M-33; a radar with a target detection range of up to 30 km (4K-33 system); set of maintenance tools.
The main caliber is a 130-mm universal automated artillery complex from the world's most powerful ship-mounted double-barreled AK-130 gun with the Lion control radar MR-184. The control system is multi-band, from radar and television channels of sight of targets and computing device, able to fully realize the maximum rate for this caliber (up to 85 rounds per minute). Within the reach of the ammunition, the complex provides shelling of coastal sections, port and other coastal installations, fortified points during landing operations of naval forces against the coast; can lead an artillery battle with surface ships and fire at medium and large-sized naval targets; hit different types of air targets, including low-flying missiles. The rate of fire is regulated from single shots or volleys, to lines. The firing range is 24.1 km, the barrel survivability is more than 1500 shots, the ammunition is 360 shells per barrel.
Multipurpose tasks are performed by AK-630 type rapid-fire assault rifles (6 artillery installations, 48,000 rounds total ammunition) defeat low-flying air targets at the turn of time, fight against small surface targets, lightly armored coastal objects (a strange task, but stated in the advertising brochure!), Destruction of floating objects min Shooting control radar MR-123 "Vympel" or from the sighting column. The rate of fire 5400 shots per minute, the range of damage at an altitude of 5 km, the maximum range of up to 8 km.
Unfortunately, the air defense weapons of the ship are not complexed into a single circuit, the absence of which can lead to the fact that one air missile can be used by all air defense weapons. The officers said how much time it took to “happen. It was once the departments, taking advantage of the moment, developed their systems, not coordinating them on the characteristics of each other.
Anti-submarine capabilities are reduced compared with the MCP of the type “Delaia”, but higher than on modern destroyers, due to the addition of a towed antenna. The detection range of the Platina submarines (MG-335) with favorable hydrological conditions is 15 km. When you turn on the towed antenna of variable depth, you can “listen” to the horizons below the temperature jump layer. In addition to detecting, tracking, classifying and determining the coordinates of targets detected, Platinum can provide data to the ship’s combat information system, or directly to anti-submarine weapons firing devices, provides two-way communication with submarines, recognition and training of hydroacoustic operators on the built-in simulator.
The main anti-submarine armament is two five-tube rotary torpedo tubes with a caliber of 533 mm. Shooting is done through side lazport. Anti-submarine torpedoes such as SET-65 have a speed of up to 40 knots, a range of up to 16 km, a warhead weight of 205 kg and an active homing system. A complex of self-propelled sonar simulators, which are also launched from a torpedo tube, can be used. There is the possibility of firing anti-submarine rocket torpedo complex "Waterfall-NK." The rocket fires like a normal torpedo, enters the water, it turns on the engine, after passing the underwater trajectory (about 300 m) it flies to the surface, at a predetermined distance the torpedo separates from it and searches for a target to defeat. The firing range of the "Waterfall" is up to 50 km.
The Smerch-2 universal rocket-propelled bombing system is used to destroy torpedoes going to the ship, to fight underwater saboteurs, at least with submarines (at detection distances of less than 6 km) and even to shoot at coastal targets. The system includes 12 receiver installation RBU-6000 with a power drive and loader; RSL-60 rocket depth bombs; fire control devices "Storm". Bombs from the cellar are served by special lifts, after loading the last barrel the installation automatically switches to the guidance mode. After firing, it automatically returns to the loading mode. Provides backup manual drive installation.
Shell with a caliber of 212 mm, weighing 110 kg (of which 25 kg is explosive weight), 1.83 m long. The firing range is up to 6 km, the depth of destruction of an object is up to 500 meters, a fuse or a percussion action, or remote (for a certain depth). All these data are entered using the fire control devices, just before the shot. The total ammunition 144 bombs (6 volleys for each RBU) instead of the RSL-60, you can use more advanced 90-P projectiles (RPK-8), which gives almost one hundred percent defeat of torpedoes going to the ship.
Radioelectronic armament is represented by the powerful three-coordinate RLK MP-800 Flag (Voskhod + Fregat stations with the Baikal-F data processing system and antenna identification) capable of detecting airborne targets at a distance of 480 km in the centimeter and decimeter ranges, and surface to 40 km (without a helicopter). From the third ship, the Frigate radar has been replaced by a more modern Fregat-MA. It has two back-to-back antenna arrays for the shortwave range (size 3.4 x 3.3 m) and the long-wavelength range (size 3.54 x 2.42 m), with a single information processing system . The "dead zone" is only 2 km, the permissible excitement conditions are 20 degrees with the side roll and 10 degrees with pitching.
The coverage of the long-range surface situation and target designation (via satellites) is provided by Corvette stations.
Navigation complex "Salgir-U" includes three radar type MP-212 "Vaigach". Communication facilities are integrated into the Typhoon-2 complex, there are space communication complexes Tsunami BM and Kristall.
Recently, it has been recognized that electronic warfare systems on ships are necessary, and their importance is increasing more and they are coming to a conclusion from the possibility of creating favorable conditions for fighting, because absolutely indifferently, the anti-aircraft complex was destroyed by your missiles or didn’t shoot that his guidance systems were overwhelmed by powerful interference. EW equipment on the criterion of "cost effectiveness" is clearly ahead of many types of weapons because jamming stations are "weapons with unlimited ammunition," and with only direct impact on the equipment and weapons of the enemy. The project 1164 cruiser has 12 x 10 PU interferences of the PK-10 system and 2x 2 PU (ZIF-121) of the PK-2 interferences, as well as a full set of radar armament of the MP-152 Koltso complex.
When the Americans in the Persian Gulf switched on their suppression system, television receivers stopped working in the Caucasus, not to mention that all Iraqi radar stations were “blinded” and “deaf”, and the anti-ship missiles were falling into the sea. True, lamp devices did not burn, and computers did not fail due to the absence of those. So our, by some notions, primitive electronic devices, perhaps, in a certain sense, are the best protection from EW facilities of highly developed technologies.
It is appropriate to quote the words of American expert Tom Bernhard studying Soviet equipment on intelligence and export samples: “The computer of this ship, which has more gears than my grandfather’s watch, is designed to withstand the electromagnetic impulse of a nuclear explosion, capable of removing building more modern computers. For each automatic system, there is a mechanical system duplicating it. These guys come from the worst scenario in which their guns would continue to fire even then when the flag has already gone under water. Curiously, the "obsolete" radar in the centimeter range is claimed to easily detected stealth aircraft. In general, there is something to think about.
The Soviet and Russian ships in the fighting, fortunately, did not participate, but there are some conclusions from the recent conflicts at sea. They are interesting. The American frigate Stark did not die just because the spread of the fire was stopped by Kevlar-bulk armor bulkheads. English Sheffield died from an unexploded rocket because it could not extinguish burning aluminum. The Libyan missile boat "Ein Mara" received two "Harpoons" immediately after turning on its radar and the loss of stealth. Missiles often do not explode, but they still cause fires. Setting false targets deflects up to eight missiles out of ten. And in that spirit. But the main thing in the other as a result of the fighting of the Argentine aviation at the Falklands from the rocket "Exocet" killed 6 British escort ships, although the main forces and troops were saved. Argentina then lost 72 aircraft, of which 28 were shot down by naval anti-aircraft weapons, and 20 deck fighters "Harrier". Meaning one without air cover, the loss of the British would have been more significant, no matter what weapon was used and no matter how powerful the ships were. To save such a connection from the defeat can only long-term stable non-flying weather.
Today, it would be self-evident that knocking down only rockets is not very promising, this is the last line of defense, and if the focus is only on him, then because of the limited ammunition, the ship can defend yourself for a short time. It is required to destroy airplanes, moreover, until they reach the point of launching their missiles. Fighters can handle this task most effectively. And at sea it is, of course, an aircraft carrier that can provide air cover for any ship, ensuring true control over the sea. It would seem that, despite the sonorous nickname “aircraft carrier killer,” an 1164 cruiser of the Project 1164 is completely undesirable if there is no our aircraft carrier of the type “Admiral of the Soviet Union navy Kuznetsov” with the SU-27 on board.
As, the project 1164 approached the implementation of this concept, the decisions made on placement and composition of weapons, combined with high seaworthiness, maneuverability, speed, allow this ship to a certain extent resist the actions of any potential enemy in remote areas of the ocean, without guaranteed air cover. In naval battles, one can hypothetically imagine what would happen if our ship, even alone, using its powerful air defense system (with the best characteristics in the world today) would approach an aircraft carrier group in the range of its anti-ship missiles or just non-flying weather: exercising full control over deck aviation, the cruiser will undoubtedly crush and sink any enemy formation. Estimating our squadron of ships really, concealed by the project 1164 cruiser, one can note the high combat capability (the ability to cause damage to the enemy) and sufficient guaranteed combat stability (ability to prevent damage). The unofficial estimate of this cruiser is quite high: using all the EW tools and weapons, it can withstand a half-hour battle with any enemy formation, knocking down up to 40 45 missiles going to the ship.
The only mistake when placing weapons on this ship was to install the second Osa air defense system at the expense of reducing Fort ammunition! In this connection, the currently accepted dispersal of cruisers of this type across all fleets seems all the more illogical and incorrect. How much would increase the efficiency of the connection of several ships of the project 1164! It is possible to note high combat capability (the ability to damage the enemy) and sufficient guaranteed combat stability (ability to prevent damage). The unofficial estimate of this cruiser is quite high: using all the EW tools and weapons, it can withstand a half-hour battle with any enemy formation, knocking down up to 40 45 missiles going to the ship. I repeat that the only mistake when placing weapons on this ship was to install the second Osa air defense system at the expense of reducing Fort ammunition.
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