Nazir - 33°31'58.35"N 57°13'41.12"E
Nazir is a long-range and high-precision radar system which is highly capable of detecting targets in low radar cross section and is resistant to radar evading and anti-radar missiles. With a reported range of 800 km, it fills the sort range "deadzone" of Iran's OTH radars, covering all of North East and Central Iran. Its placement at an elevation of over 2900 meters reflects an attempt at alleviating one of the biggest challenges to Iran's air defences, which is Iran's mountainous terrain.
On September 1, 2015, Iran unveiled two domestically-built state-of-the-art radar systems, dubbed Nazir [Inspector] and Bina [understanding], capable of detecting stealth targets at high altitudes. Nazir is a long-range radar system that can detect and track hostile aerial targets within a radius of 800 kilometers at an estimated altitude of 100,000 feet, while Bina uses three-dimensional (3-D) technology to detect radar-evading targets. It can also be used to deter electronic warfare.
A senior Iranian commander said 29 August 2016 the country had put its domestically-manufactured Nazir long-range radar system with the capability of detecting radar-evading targets into operation. “Nazir radar has come into operation and no radar-evading flying object can enter the Islamic Republic’s airspace without permission from now on,” Brigadier General Farzad Esmaili, the commander of the Khatam al-Anbiya Air Defense Base, said.
He added that the homegrown radar specializes in detecting small flying objects such as the US Lockheed U-2 reconnaissance aircraft, US General Atomics MQ-1 drone and the Northrop Grumman RQ-4 surveillance aircraft. “The Nazir radar can easily detect and trace ballistic and cruise missiles and most importantly radar-evading aircraft," the commander said.The radar system was put into operation at the altitude of over 3,000 meters (about 9,800 feet).
Esmaili praised the new radar systems as “unprecedented” and difficult for the enemy to identify. The Nazir and Bina radar systems work in wavebands that are impossible to overhear, the general added, saying that the advanced systems can detect wide-body flying objects as well as stealth aircraft.
The comments on the internet claim that it is deployed in the east of the country, on top of a mountain at 3,000 m in height. The satelllite imagery discloses a location of un-imaginable isolation, approached by an unbelievably twisting and winding road. It is not usual in OTH radars since they do not need to gain height to get more angle, but there is little information about this radar.
The video unambiguously depicting the Nazir radar also clearly includes brief shots of another circularly disposed antenna, though with fewer and shorter towers. Whether this is part of the Nazir radar, or the Bina frequentlyl mentioned in connection with Nazir is unclear.
Large antennas collect relatively large amounts of electromagnetic energy much as large buckets collect large amounts of rain. Many radar systems require antennas with narrow azimuthal beamwidths scannable over a full 360°. One method employed in the prior art for satisfying these requirements is to provide an antenna with the desired beam characteristics and mechanically rotate the entire assembly. These are high inertial systems, however, which require considerable driving power and provide limited scan rate capabilities.
To overcome the deficiencies of mechanical scan antennas, various electronic systems for circular scanning have been devised. Early electronic circularly scanned systems utilized switching networks to sequentially excite circularly disposed antenna elements with uniform distributions. This arrangement exhibits course step scanning characteristics due to the element switching to effectuate scanning and high radiated sidelobe characteristics due to the uniform illumination.
In 1944, Dr. Hans Rindfleisch of Germany built the first Wullenweber array in Skisby, Denmark. It had 40 vertical radiator elements, placed on a 120-m-diameter circle with 40 reflecting elements installed behind the radiator elements around a circle having a diameter of 112.5 m. Wullenwever was the WWII German cover name for the antenna: The Germans actually called it Wullenwever. Americans could not pronounce it, so they changed the name to Wullenweber. After the war, the Soviets built many of these arrays and even tracked Sputnik with them. The United States got interested later and ended up building many passive arrays for the US Navy SIGINT programs.
Radio signals are received by groups of adjacent antennae of a circularly disposed antenna array, and are combined in phasing networks to provide a set of identical, equi-spaced directional beams covering 360 azimuth. In addition to the formation of fixed beams, this type of array is frequently used for direction finding purposes where signals from a sector of elements are coupled to and combined in a commutating device or goniometer, rotation of which produces a rotating antenna beam.
Stealth designs have two basic guidelines to achieve the goal of reduced RCS – airframe shape and coating materials with Radar Absorbing Materials (RAM). Countries such as Russia and China advertise and sell lower frequency radar sets aimed to detect stealth aircraft threats, and VHF and UHF radars are accepted in the literature as an effective weapon to detect stealth vehicles. Stealth radar absorbing materials [RAM] are not so effective against UHF and VHF frequencies, and the VHF/UHF radars can potentially help detect stealthy aircraft.
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