Sepehr (Sky) over-the-horizon [OTH] radar
|Sepehr (Sky)||Dasht Arjan||29°37'02"N||52°02'36"E|
|Qadir [Almighty]||Nur Ed Dinabad, Garmasar||35.133561°N||52.469442°E|
Iran has purchased at least four Rezonas-N VHF over-the-horizon backscatter air defense radars from Russia. These have been constructed in two variants. The larger Sepehr [Sky] radars are formed in a quadrilateral antenna array about 100 meters on a side, with very tall transmitter towers on the corners. The Qadir [Almighty] radars are smaller quadrilateral antenna arrays, rather less than 70 meters on a side and nearly filled with buildings, with a single central tall transmitter tower. The Sepehr are rather more elaborate in appearance, in extremely isolated locations, while the Qadir are simple stations, plopped down in rural farmland. Between them all, they seem to provide extensive coverage of South West Asia, with overlapping coverage of Iranian airspace.
One of the ways to detect and detect surface targets far from the use of over-the-horizon [OTH] radars, which are also referred to as super horizons, horizons and cosmic systems. The cosmic radar will radiate HF waves to the ionosphere, ranging from 85 km to 600 km. By exposing the waves to this layer, which leads to their return to the earth, wide range can be covered. These radars are suitable for monitoring remote areas of 500-4000 kilometers or more in vast areas.
These radars have a network of transmitter and receiver antennas and, due to the network nature and expansion of their systems, have no high transport and handling capability and are used locally in a fixed location. The civilian use of these radars in such matters as oceanography and maritime traffic control and their military use in the early warning system of ballistic missile and cruise missile defense systems.
Cosmic radars are usually less complicated in terms of hardware than radar with higher frequency, but are very complex in terms of software and processing. The accuracy of these radar measurements is not as great as radar, and their use is only in the early alert section. A country that uses the cosmic radar can actually monitor the movements of the surrounding region on its soil at a moment's notice.
The Sepehr radar, which is also the longest range radar in the country, and according to defense officials, its usual range is 2,500 kilometers, which can change from 800 kilometers to 3000 kilometers. The radar designed and built in recent years has been operationally ready for operation, with enough to be deployed in different parts of the country.
Iran announced in August 2014 that it has finalized construction of space radars to detect satellite and space objects' trajectories, adding that the country is now using new passive phased array radars to detect stealth targets and cruise missiles. "The executive stages of Sepehr (Sky) space radar with the range of over 2,500km have been accomplished and the point for its deployment has also been specified," Commander of Khatam ol-Anbia Air Defense Base Brigadier General Farzad Esmayeeli told reporters in Tehran at the time. He also pointed to the designing and building of new passive phased array radars under the name of 'Soundless Project', and said, "The radar is capable of detecting stealth (radar-evading) targets and cruise missiles and enjoys a high movement and mobility capabilities and acts in different ranges." The 2500 km radius of Sepehr was unveiled and tested 20 November 2014. The first phase of the radar long range of Sepehr was successfully tested and evaluated in a sector with the presence of the commander of the air defense base of Khatam-ol-Anbia (PBUH). The first phase of the long-range radar radar in Sepehr was held in the presence of Amir Farzad Esmaeili, commander of the air defense base, and Amir Shahram, deputy executive of the base, and a group of elites, designers and officials in the operation circuit of the Integrated Defense Forces Network The country's air has been successfully tested and evaluated.
Amir Shahram, executive vice president and spokesman for the air defense base on the sidelines of the ceremony, said: "Thanks to Allah Almighty and the efforts and efforts of young people specializing in the air defense base, as promised, the Sephar cosmic radar with over 2500 km of ballasts complemented the field of care and control radar In order to carry out the basic defense in depth, after successful tests, a successful sector was successfully evaluated, and for the first time, its information was successfully used to operate on the integrated air defense base network.
The radar is a long-range radar detecting radar targets with very low cross-sections and capable of identifying all targets at altitudes, low altitudes and high altitudes, and targeting tiny birds. Ballistic and semi-ballistic missiles as well as cruise missiles are easily detected by this radar. He added: "This radar can detect and threaten possible threats against the Islamic Republic of Iran far beyond the borders, which will increase the time of decision-making."
In the end, Shahram stated: "The construction and use of several new radar systems in the past years in the air defense base of the Air Base has shown a dynamic and growing air defense base, making today the airspace of the Islamic Republic of Iran become a powerful and alert area of the region. has done.
Iran is close to deploying an early-warning radar system of its own to detect missile launches, stealth aircraft and drones thousands of kilometers from its borders. Once fully deployed, the Sepehr radar system will secure Iran's entire airspace.
Iran is introducing its most long-range Sepehr (Sky) phased array radar system, capable of controlling airspaces of all of its neighbor countries in the Middle East and Central Asia, as well as vast parts of Northern Africa, Eastern Europe and Russia.
With a range of up to 3,000 kilometers in distance and up to 300 kilometers into space, Sepehr radar system will protect the country's airspace completely. “The radar will be included in the integrated air defense network in future after it is fully deployed, and then we will be able to even feel the enemies' breathing in their bases,” Commander of Khatam ol-Anbia Air Defense Base Brigadier General Farzad Esmayeeli told the national Fars news agency (FNA) on 15 February 2015.
"We don’t have any bottleneck left with regard to the Sepehr radar system and over 40 percent of its deployment plan has ended and we don't have any problem” with its development and deployment, he added. “We hope that we can launch a major part of the Sepehr space radar system by the end of the next (Iranian) year (March 21, 2014-March 20, 2015),” Commander Esmayeeli told FNA.
Brigadier General Shahrokh Shahram, the lieutenant commander of Khatam ol-Anbia Air Defense Base, told FNA that the Sepehr radar has successfully passed all the tests. “The Sepehr radar system… can detect stealth targets and micro UAVs at low, medium and high altitudes while it can also very easily identify and detect ballistic, semi-ballistic and cruise missiles,” Shahram said, FNA reported. The first phase of Iran’s early warning radar system was tested in November 2014. In September, Iran unveiled two domestically manufactured state-of-the-art radar systems capable of detecting stealth aircraft and long-distance targets, Arash-2 and Kayhan.
In January 2017, Brig. Gen. Farzad Ismaeli, commander of Iran’s air-defense force, announced a plan to construct a more powerful OTH radar called Sepehr that could feature a 3,000-kilometer range.
Iran has made significant progress in building long-range radar networks, according to Jane's Defense. According to the report, the new Iranian radar network in the northwest of the country, called Sepehr, has a range of 3000 kilometers, and new satellite images show that Iran has added two other long-range radar systems to its radar network. Based on satellite image documentation, this English-language magazine claimed that an advanced Iranian radar network is located near Garmsar and resembles the Russian "Rezonans-NE" radars.
Jane's Defense wrote Iran also uses Ghadir radars in the central parts of the country, which are 360 degrees full-fledged and are now active. The magazine claimed that the Sepehr radar system based in Kurdistan would be able to cover Iran, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Israel, Turkey and Pakistan, as well as Eastern Europe, Southeast Russia, including Moscow, East India and a large part Watch the Arabian Sea.
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