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Graphic - Center for Army Lessons Learned

On Point

The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom


Interviews, Discussions, Notes, and E-mail Correspondence
(Persons listed here are those who were cited in On Point)

General (Retired) Frederick M. Franks, Jr.
General (Retired) Dennis Reimer
General (Retired) Gordon Sullivan
Lieutenant General David McKiernan
Lieutenant General (Retired) Dan Petrosky
Lieutenant General William Wallace
Major General Keith Alexander
Major General Robert Blackman
Major General Claude "Chris" Christianson
Major General Bobby Dail
Major General Ann Dunwoody
Major General David Kratzer
Major General James A. "Spider" Marks
Major General Dave Petraeus
Major General Henry Stratman
Major General J.D. Thurman
Brigadier General Jack Stultz
Colonel Daniel Allyn
Colonel Charles A. Anderson
Colonel Kevin Benson
Colonel Steve Boltz
Colonel Arnold Bray
Colonel Kenneth Canestrini
Colonel Melvin R. Frazier
Colonel Michael Gearty
Colonel William L. Greer
Colonel William Grimsley
Colonel Clyde Harthcock
Colonel Marc Hildenbrand
Colonel Ben Hodges
Colonel Carl Horst
Colonel Victoria Leignadier
Colonel Rodney Mallette
Colonel Gregg Martin
Colonel Robert W. Nicholson
Colonel Gary L. Parrish
Colonel David Perkins
Colonel Steven W. Rotkoff
Colonel Patrick Simon
Lieutenant Colonel Eric Wesley
Major William Abb
Major John Altman
Major Prentiss Baker
Major David Carstens
Major Anthony Cavallaro
Major Phillip Chambers
Major Kevin Christensen
Major Gerard Cribb
Major Michael Gabel
Major Brad Gavle
Major Matthew Glunz
Major Thomas J. Kardos
Major John Lindsay
Major Matthew R. Littlejohn
Major Kevin Marcus
Major Michael A. Marti
Major Michael Millen
Major Robert Mooney
Major Mike Oliver
Major Chris Parker
Major Laura A. Potter
Major Lou RagoSergeant
Major Robert Sanchez
Major Kyle Warren
Major Julius Washington
Major John White
Captain Brett Bair
Captain Brooks Brenkus
Captain Chris Carter
Captain Shane Celeen
Captain John Cochran
Captain Sean Connely
Captain Ron Cooper (chaplain)
Captain Thomas P. Ehrhart
Captain Brett T. Funck
Captain Alberto Garnica
Captain William Glaser
Captain Dave Hibner
Captain Karen E. Hobart
Captain John Ives
Captain Travis Jacobs
Captain Ronny Johnson
Captain Jeffrey McCoy
Captain Chris Medhurst-Cocksworth
Colonel Jeff Smith
Colonel Teddy Spain
Colonel David Teeples
Colonel Thomas G. Torrance
Colonel Bill Wolf
Colonel Terry Wolff
Lieutenant Colonel Joseph De Antonna
Lieutenant Colonel Carl Ayers
Lieutenant Colonel Daniel Ball
Lieutenant Colonel Mike Barbee
Lieutenant Colonel Pete Bayer
Lieutenant Colonel Henry "Bill" Bennett
Lieutenant Colonel Ken Brown (chaplain)
Lieutenant Colonel Rick Carlson
Lieutenant Colonel John Charlton
Lieutenant Colonel Trent Cuthbert
Lieutenant Colonel Phillip DeCamp
Lieutenant Colonel E.J. Degen
Lieutenant Colonel Ivan Denton
Lieutenant Colonel Chuck Eassa
Lieutenant Colonel Erin Edgar
Lieutenant Colonel Scott Fehnel
Lieutenant Colonel Terry Ferrell
Lieutenant Colonel Wesley Gillman
Lieutenant Colonel John Harding
Lieutenant Colonel John Huey
Lieutenant Colonel Christopher P. Hughes
Lieutenant Colonel Jeffrey Ingram
Lieutenant Colonel "Rock" Marcone
Lieutenant Colonel John McPherson
Lieutenant Colonel Jerry Pearman
Lieutenant Colonel Edward Rowe
Lieutenant Colonel Scott Rutter
Lieutenant Colonel Jeffrey R. Sanderson
Lieutenant Colonel Eric "Rick" Schwartz
Lieutenant Colonel Steven Smith
Lieutenant Colonel Stephen Twitty
Lieutenant Colonel Bradley Wakefield
Lieutenant Colonel Robert P. Walters, Jr.
Captain Mike Melito
Captain Gary Morea
Captain Henry Perry
Captain Robert L. Smith
Captain Phillip Wolford
First Lieutenant Aaron H. Anderson
First Lieutenant Matthew Garrett
First Lieutenant Jason King
First Lieutenant Christian Wade
Second Lieutenant Ryan Booth
Second Lieutenant Luke Devlin
Second Lieutenant Jason Fritz
Second Lieutenant Bradley Koerner
Second Lieutenant Jon Linthwaite
Chief Warrant Officer 4 Henry Crowder
Chief Warrant Officer 4 Rocky Yahn
Chief Warrant Officer 2 Jay Dehart
Chief Warrant Officer 2 John Tomblin
Command Sergeant Major Robert Gallagher
Command Sergeant Major Brian Stall
Master Sergeant Courtney Mabus
First Sergeant Michael Moore
First Class Curtis Anderson
Sergeant First Class Frank R. Antenori
Sergeant First Class Javier Camacho
Sergeant First Class Jason Christner
Sergeant First Class Stanley L. Griffin
Sergeant First Class Susan A. Pasarcik
Sergeant First Class Kevin Ricks
Staff Sergeant Michael Brouillard
Staff Sergeant Dillard Johnson
Staff Sergeant Brian Plesich
Staff Sergeant Joe Todd
Staff Sergeant Antonio Wells
Sergeant Daniel Voss
Specialist Manuel Avila
Corporal Richard Bergquist
Corporal Warren Hall
Specialist Ryan Horner
Corporal Brian Hubbard
Specialist Eric Huth
Specialist John N. Hutto
Private First Class Anthony Jackson
Dr. James Ellsworth, US Naval War College

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Group Interviews

  • Interview with CFLCC planning staff
  • Members of SOCCE-Kuwait and 19th SF Group
  • Multiple interviews with 3rd ID brigade and battalion commanders
  • Brigade S2s, 3rd ID and 101st Abn Division
  • Interviews with V Corps planners
  • 3rd BCT, 3rd ID officers
  • 1-327 Infantry RTOs and drivers
  • 1-227 AHB pilot interviews
  • 3-15 Infantry officers
  • Interview with members of B/2-6 CAV
  • Interview with members of C/3-7 CAV
  • 4-64 AR commanders interview.
  • TF 1-64 AR officers interview.
  • Interviews with several Iraqi brigadiers and staff colonels
  • Interview with Iraq Team, Forces Directorate National Ground Intelligence Center (NGIC)

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Books and Articles

  • Arnold, Steven L. "Somalia: An Operation Other Than War." Military Review. December 1993.
  • Arnoldy, Ben. "Syrian Volunteers Fought US Troops In Southern Iraq." Christian Science Monitor, 11 April 2003.
  • Battle Labs, Maintaining the Edge. TRADOC Pamphlet. Fort Monroe, Virginia, 1994.
  • "Battle of Debecka Ridge Summary Brief." Colonel Michael Beasock. TRADOC Systems Manager for Close Combat Missiles. US Army Infantry School. Fort Benning, GA, undated.
  • Biddle, Stephen. Afghanistan and the Future of Warfare: Implications for Army and Defense Policy. Strategic Studies Institute: November 2002.
  • Bowden, Mark. Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. Boston: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1999.
  • Buchanan, Allen. "Self-Determination, Secession, and the Rule of Law" in Robert McKim and Jeff McMahan, eds. The Morality of Nationalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
  • Bykosfsky, Joseph, and Harold Larson. The Transportation Corps: Operations Overseas. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of Military History, 1957.
  • Castillo, Victor. "Why An Army? Full Dimensional Operations and Digitization" (PowerPoint presentation), -, accessed on 11 October 2003. Since October 2003 the Army has updated this website and deleted Castillo's chart.
  • Collins, Lieutenant Colonel Tom. Forward Deployed Army Force in Italy Proved its Worth During Iraq War (Draft), unpublished.
  • Connel, Rich and Robert J. Lopez. "A Deadly Day for Charlie Company." Los Angles Times, 26 August 2003.
  • Cooper, Belton Y. Death Traps: The Survival of an American Armored Division in World War II. New York: Random House Ballantine Books, 1998.
  • Cordesman, Anthony H. The Iraq War: Strategy, Tactics, and Military Lessons. The CSIS Press. Center for Strategic and International Studies. Washington, DC. September 2003.
  • Cox, Mathew. "Stretched Thin." Army Times, 23 June 2003.
  • Czerwinski, Tom. Coping with Bounds: Speculations on Non-Linearity in Military Affairs. Washington, DC: NDU Press, 1998.
  • Damrosch, Lori F. Enforcing Restraint: Collective Intervention in Internal Conflicts. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1993.
  • Department of the Army, The Way Ahead, Our Army at War. -, accessed 17 December 2003.
  • Dilanian, Ken. "Airborne Jumps Into Northern Iraq." Philadelphia Inquirer. Knight Ridder Newspapers, 26 March 2003.
  • Durch, William J. and James A. Schear. "Faultlines: UN Operations in the Former Yugoslavia." Ed. William J. Durch. UN Peacekeeping, American Policy, and the Uncivil Wars of the 1990s, 1990-2000.
  • Forward . . .From the Sea. United States Navy, Washington DC, Dept of the Navy, 1994.
  • Franks, General Frederick M. Jr. "TRADOC at 20: Where Tomorrow's Victories Begin." ARMY, October 1993
  • Glenn, Dr. Russ. Heavy Matter: Urban Operations Density of Challenges. Santa Monica, California, RAND, 2001.
  • Grahm, Bradley, and Vernon Loeb. "An Air War of Might, Coordination, and Risks." Washington Post, 27 April 2003.
  • Hargrove-Simon, Elaine, "Journalists Who Lost Their Lives in the War with Iraq." Silha Bulletin, University of Minnesota. Silha Center for the Study of Media Ethics and Law. Spring 2003- Special Issue, Volume 8, Number 3.
  • Johnson, Mark, et. al. "In Southern Iraq, Low-Level Fighting Continues." Knight Ridder Newspapers, 2 April 2003.
  • Lasseter, Tom and Mark Johnson. "Soldiers in Southern Iraq Fighting to Secure Bridges, Towns." Knight Ridder Newspapers, 4 April 2003.
  • Madhani, Aamer. "Soldiers Cross Euphrates, Take Control of Bridges Around Samawah." Chicago Tribune, 4 April 2003.
  • Manwaring, Max G. "Peace and Stability Lessons from Bosnia." Parameters, Winter 1998.
  • Matthews, James K. and Cora J. Holt. So Many, So Far, So Fast: United States Transportation Command and Strategic Deployment for Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm. Washington, DC, 1992.
  • Merritt, General Jack N. US Army, Retired. "A Talk With the Chief," ARMY, June 1995.
  • Murray, Williamson, and Major General Robert H. Scales, Jr. The Iraq War, A Military History. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003.
  • Nair, Brigadier V.K. War in the Gulf: Lessons for the 3rd World. New Delhi: Lancer International, 1991.
  • Peacekeeping and the Challenge of Civil Conflict Resolution. ed. David A. Charters. Center for Conflict Studies, University of New Brunswick, 1994.
  • President George W. Bush. public radio address. 2030, 11 September 2001. Capitol, Washington, DC. Transcript from, -, accessed 15 July 2003.
  • President George W. Bush. Address to Congress. 20 September 2001. Capitol, Washington, DC. Transcript from -, accessed 15 July 2003.
  • Reimer, General Dennis J. US Army, Retired, and James Jay Carafano, ed. Soldiers Are Our Credentials Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2000.
  • Romjue, John L. American Army Doctrine for the Post-Cold War. Fort Monroe, VA: TRADOC, 1990.
  • Ross, Colonel Blair. Public Affairs Officer. US Army Europe, "A Transformed Force in Legacy Clothing." (Unpublished).
  • Russian Academy of Military Sciences Scientific Council. Compilation of Essays presented in Moscow, June 6, 2003.
  • Shinseki, General Eric K. USA, Chief of Staff. (Prepared remarks at the Association of the United States Army Association Army Seminar) Washington, DC, 8 November 2001.
  • Spiller, Dr. Roger J. Sharp Corners: Urban Operations at Century's End. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute, 2001.
  • Strange, Dr. Joe. Centers of Gravity and Critical Vulnerabilities. Marine Corps University Perspectives on Warfighting No. 4, 1997.
  • Sullivan, General (Retired) Gordon R. and Michael V. Harper. Hope is Not a Method. New York: Times Business, Random House, 1996.
  • Swain, Richard M. Lucky War: Third Army in Desert Storm. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: CGSC Press, 1997.
  • Toffler, Alvin and Heidi. War and Antiwar: Survival at the Dawn of the 21st Century. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company: 1993.
  • US Army Peacekeeping Institute, Bosnia-Herzegovina After-Action Review Conference Report. Carlisle Barracks, PA: US Army War College.
  • Woodward, Susan L., Balkan Tragedy. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution Press, 1995.
  • Army, Joint, and US Government Documents/Publications
  • Field Manual 3-06. Urban Operations. Headquarters, Department of the Army. Washington, DC. June 2003.
  • Field Manual 6-0. Mission Command: Command and Control of Army Forces. Headquarters, Department of the Army, Washington, DC. 11 August 2003.
  • Field Manual 100-5. Operations. Headquarters, Department of the Army, Washington, DC. June 1993.
  • Field Manual 100-17-3. Reception, Staging, Onward Movement and Integration. Headquarters, Department of the Army. Washington, DC. 17 March 1999.
  • Field Manual 101-5-1/Marine Corps Reference Publication 5-2A. Organizational Terms and Symbols. HQ Department of the Army/United States Marine Corps. Washington, DC. 30 September 1997.
  • Joint Publication 4-01.8. Joint Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for Joint Reception, Staging, Onward Movement and Integration. Joint Chiefs of Staff, Washington, DC, 13 June 2000.
  • FORSCOM Regulation 500-3-3. FORSCOM Mobilization and Deployment Planning System (FORMDEPS). Volume III, Reserve Component Unit Commander's Handbook. Fort McPherson, GA. 15 July 1999.
  • FORSCOM Regulation 500-3-5. FORSCOM Mobilization and Deployment Planning System (FORMDEPS). Volume V, FORSCOM Demobilization Plan. Fort McPherson, GA. 31 December 1998.
  • Battle Lab . . . Force XXI. Defining the Future. Headquarters, US Army Training and Doctrine Command, Fort Monroe, VA. May 1995.
  • Battle Lab . . . Maintaining the Edge. Headquarters, US Army Training and Doctrine Command, Fort Monroe, VA. May 1994.
  • GAO-02-96. Major Challenges for Army Transformation Plan. US General Accounting Office. November 2001.
  • ST 3-90.15 Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for Tactical Operations Involving Sensitive Sites. Futures Development and Learning Center, US Army Combined Arms Center. Fort Leavenworth, KS. December 2002.
  • TRADOC. Support to the Warfighter. Title X Integration Futures Development and Learning Center, US Combined Arms Center. Fort Leavenworth, KS (PowerPoint briefing).
  • TRADOC. Title X Support Catalogue. 13 Feb 2003.

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Rather than list each document discretely, this bibliography will list records groups by unit or command. The bibliography is limited to those records groups that the writing team used. The OIF archive includes some 119, 000 documents and 68,000 photographs, many of which were not used because of classification or because they were not pertinent to the terms of reference for On Point records. Groups include briefings, plans and orders, reports and unit histories, and after-action reviews.

  • United States Central Command.
  • United States European Command.
  • United States Army Europe--This records group primarily pertains to training and deployment of United States Army Europe units.
  • United States Forces Command--This records group is fairly small and focused on ForcesCommand updates and deployment records.
  • United States Transportation Command--This records group includes records from all three service component commands. The Military Traffic Management Command records group includes data provided by 598th Transportation Terminal Group that provided single port management in theater.
  • Training and Doctrine Command--This records group is fairly small and devoted to tactics, techniques and procedures for military operations. It contains some after-action reviews, including example Battle Command Training Program after-action reviews.
  • Coalition Forces Air Component Command--This records group is not large, but research focused on air tasking order execution, related special instructions and commander's intent for each air tasking order cycle, thus enabling an understanding of the air effort. These records include the CFACC Campaign Briefing.
  • Coalition Forces Special Operations Component Command--Due to classification, On Point cites very few documents from this group, but the OIF archive has a fairly broad collection of SOF documents. This records group includes records for JSOTF-West, North, and 173rd Airborne Brigade
  • Coalition Joint Psychological Operations Task Force. Coalition Forces Land Component Command--For obvious reasons this is the most complete of the CENTCOM component command records groups. CFLCC echelon above corps units are cited as separate records groups. This group of records includes the staff and the general body of records associated with the CFLCC headquarters. The records of the CFLCC headquarters provided the basis for understanding the land component campaign. This records group also includes records from Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance (ORHA), the organization that preceded the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA).
    • 75th Exploitation Task Force
    • 32nd Army Air and Missile Defense Command
    • 416th Engineer Command
    • 335th Theater Signal Command
    • 513th Military Intelligence Brigade
    • 352nd Civil Affairs Command
    • 377th Theater Support Command--The 377th records group is quite large as it includes everything from military police prisoner of war processing units to Army Materiel Command support activities located in the theater from Kuwait to Qatar.
    • Task Force RIO (Restore Iraqi Oil).
  • I Marine Expeditionary Force--This records group is by no means as complete as similar records groups for V Corps and its subordinates, but it contains graphics and orders that enabled a general understanding of I MEF operations in the context of the CFLCC campaign. It also contains the records of US Army enabler units in support of Marine operations, such as chemical defense, signal, engineers, and military police.
  • V Corps--This records group and those of the units assigned to V Corps are cited more than any other group in the collection.
    • 3rd Infantry Division--The 3rd ID records group includes subordinate unit records, reports and histories down to the battalion and separate company echelon.
    • 4th Infantry Division--Not as complete as the other division records groups since On Point focused on major combat operations.
    • 82nd Airborne Division--Not as complete as other division records groups and focused on the 2nd BCT.
    • 101st Airborne Division--The 101st records group includes subordinate unit records, reports, and histories down to the battalion and separate company echelon.
    • 1st Infantry Division (-)--A small collection of records from the 1st Brigade units deployed, primarily 1st Battalion, 63rd Armor Regiment.
    • 1st Armored Division (-)--A small collection of records from the 3rd Brigade units deployed, primarily Task Force 1-41 Infantry and Task Force 2-70 Armor.
    • 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment (Light).
    • 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment.
    • 11th Attack Helicopter Regiment.
    • 12th Aviation Brigade.
    • V Corps Artillery.
    • 31st Air Defense Artillery Brigade.
    • 130th Engineer Brigade.
    • 205th Military Intelligence Brigade.
    • 18th Military Police Brigade.
    • 22nd Signal Brigade.
    • 18th Soldier Support Group.
    • 3rd Ordnance Battalion (explosive ordnance disposal).
    • 3rd Corps Support Command.
    • 1st Medical Brigade.
    • 30th Medical Brigade.
    • 62nd Medical Brigade.

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Army Documents/Publications

  • "US Army Contributions to the Iraqi Theater of Operations," Department of the Army briefing to the Secretary of Defense, 4 June 2003.
  • Department of the Army (DAMO-SS) Information Paper, "Army Strategic Planning Board Functions and Organizations," 28 August 2003.
  • Gordon R. Sullivan, General, CSA, SUBJECT: "Reshaping Army Doctrine," Memorandum for Lieutenant General Frederick M. Franks, Jr., 29 July 1991.
  • General Gordon R. Sullivan's letter to the field titled "Force XXI," 12 March 1994.
  • General Gordon R. Sullivan's memorandum titled "Force XXI Experimental Force Prime Directive," 14 February 1995.
  • Personal Message for General Galvin, et al. (senior Army commanders), "Louisiana Maneuvers, 1994," DTG 091415MAR92.
  • United States Army Intelligence Center "Operation IRAQI FREEDOM Consolidated Lessons Learned (DRAFT)," 22 August 2003, 34.
  • "Mission Overview, Free Iraqi Forces," produced by Task Force Warrior, Colonel James D. Doyle, 26 April 2003.
  • "Operation IRAQI FREEDOM--By the Numbers," CENTAF-PSAB, KSA, Commander's Action Group, 9th Air Force, Shaw Air Force Base, SC, 30 April 2003.
  • Letter from Major General Thomas R. Turner, commanding general, Southern European Task Force, to Brigadier General Timothy D. Livsey, Deputy Commanding General for Training, Combined Arms Center. Fort Leavenworth, KS, 23 October 2003.
  • Donald H. Rumsfeld. Rebalancing Forces. Memorandum dated 9 July 2003.
  • General Peter J. Schoomaker, Chief of Staff, US Army. Arrival Message, 1 August 2003.
  • Briefing prepared by SAMS Deployment OPT, undated, held in Combined Arms Research Library, Fort Leavenworth, KS.
  • Operations in Iraq, First Reflections. United Kingdom, Ministry of Defence. July 2003.
  • Operation Iraqi Freedom-Study Group Operational Summaries
  • Major Robert Tallman. "OIFSG Operational Summary: PSYOP," 15 July 2003.
  • Lieutenant Colonel Scott Gedling. "OIFSG Operational Summary: Army National Guard,"15 July 2003.
  • Major Daniel Corey. "OIFSG Operational Summary: Intelligence," 15 July 2003.
  • Major David Converse. "OIFSG Operational Summary: Psychological Operations"
  • Major Robert Foley. "OIFSG Operational Summary: Information Operations"
  • Lieutenant Colonel David Kolleda. "OIFSG Operational Summary: Transportation"
  • Captain Michael Mathews. "OIFSG Operational Summary: EPW Operations in OIF"

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[ Contents ] [ Foreword ] [ Preface ] [ Acknowledgments ] [ Introduction ]
[ Ch 1 ] [ Ch 2 ] [ Ch 3 ] [ Photos ] [ Ch 4 ] [ Ch 5 ] [ Ch 6 ] [ Ch 7 ] [ Ch 8 ]
[ OIF-SG Team ] [ Order of Battle ] [ Glossary ] [ Bibliography ]

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