U.S. Army Reserve Command (USARC)
The U.S. Army Reserve Command (USARC) is responsible for Troop Program Unit (TPU) soldiers. The US Army Reserve Command, a major subordinate command of U.S. Army Forces Command, commands, controls, and supports all Army Reserve troop units in the continental United States with the exception of Psychological Operations and Civil Affairs units. The USARC also ensures the readiness of its forces and prepares the nearly 1,700 units under its command to mobilize and deploy to a wartime theater of operation.
USARC has a variety of Major Subordinate Commands (MSCs.) These include Regional Readiness Commands, Aviation Brigades, Theater Army Area Support Commands, Signal Commands, Engineer Commands, Transportation Commands, Training Divisions, etc. There are 12 Regional Support Commands, or RSCs. The geographical boundaries of the RSCs mirror FEMA boundaries, as depicted above. RSCs have peacetime command and control of USAR MI units. Utilizing the peace-time chain-of-command, they provide all personnel, training, logistics, and funding support to subordinate units within their region.
The USARC's command and control structure is designed to focus on training; readiness; supporting mobilization; and providing military support to other federal agencies. Eleven Regional Support Commands (RSCs) located throughout the United States provide resource, logistics and personnel management services to all Army Reserve units within their region. Three Regional Support Groups (RSGs) assist the RSCs in providing administrative, logistics and general support services. A structure of Army Garrison Units assists the Army by managing Active Component garrisons during mobilization.
The USAR's Regional Readiness Commands [as the Regional Support Commands were redesignated in mid-2003] are aligned with the Standard Federal Regions. The USAR provides regional support, planning, training and response teams tied to the federal requirements for crisis and consequence management against weapons of mass destruction thus leveraging our military and civilian skills. The command and control structure of the Army Reserve was redesigned from 20 Continental United States (CONUS) Army Reserve Commands to a ten Regional Support Command structure that reduced overhead by 1937 spaces or 38%.
Army Reservists train at installations controlled and managed by the USARC. Several posts, including Fort McCoy, WI, Fort Hunter-Liggett, CA, Camp Parks, CA, and Fort Dix, NJ, have become regional training sites for all three components of America's Army. These training centers support field and computer simulated training.
Worldwide training is a key to Army Reserve readiness. The USARC identifies, schedules, monitors and resources training for combat support and combat service support units. The USARC manages 500 Army Reserve units which are part of the Army's Force Support Package (FSP). In case of a mobilization, units in the Army Reserve's FSP would be activiated immediately to provide combat support and combat service support capabilities. The Tiered Resourcing Program, implemented and managed by the USARC, is designed to improve unit readiness and also ensures units in the Army Reserve FSP receive the highest priority for all resources.
The USAR organizational structure is aligned under a continental United States (CONUS) theater area support concept. This concept assigns a base support area to each USAR MMC. Doing this supports the Army's Revolution in Military Logistics (RML) plan to integrate these units into Army-wide support requirements, as well as the aim of the Chief, Army Reserve, to train units as they will fight.
The USAR has several ongoing automation initiatives aimed at improving its automation architecture. STAMIS resource requirements and shortfalls have been compiled, and priorities for fielding and resourcing each STAMIS have been clearly defined and documented. All USAR DS and GS CSS units having a supply mission are receiving the Standard Army Retail Supply System-1 (SARSS-1). The 55th, 304th, and 321st MMC's are converting to SARSS-2A and the Corps/Theater Automatic Data Processing Service Center-Phase II (CTASC-II), which will enable them to provide stock control and materiel management to their areas of support, as well as stock funding, GS supply support, and storage operations for USARC installations. These initiatives are linked to constantly evolving concepts in automation architecture and will foster interoperability and compatibility with the active component.
Selected TDA positions in USAR area maintenance support activities (AMSA's) and equipment concentration sites (ECS's) are being considered for realignment as modification table of organization and equipment (MTOE) direct support (DS) maintenance organizations. Transferring these TDA positions to MTOE units will improve their ability to train as they fight, reduce maintenance backlogs, and provide mission-oriented training that should increase the retention of soldiers. The AMSA's and ECS's are staffed with full-time military technicians. It makes good sense to assign the majority of these key personnel to TOE, "go-to-war" USAR units in order to make use of their knowledge, experience, and continuity.
The USAR is prepared to outsource "low-end" organizational maintenance requirements to local civilian contractors and transfer DS maintenance requirements from installations to reengineered DS and general support (GS) maintenance companies. This will enable full-time military technicians and Active Guard/Reserve (AGR) soldiers to concentrate on the DS and GS maintenance backlog on a daily basis; it also will create incentives for offering meaningful DS and GS maintenance tasks to drilling soldiers on weekend training.
The Army has contracted with industry to provide technology insertions that upgrade existing vehicles and other systems. Using new and innovative technology on existing equipment extends that equipment's life cycle, reduces maintenance and supply requirements, and increases equipment readiness. Insertion and conversion kits will be installed primarily by Army Reserve soldiers at DS and GS maintenance units after industry has trained them; this not only will strengthen the USAR partnership with industry but also encourage retention by providing the soldiers with challenging, professional work.
USAR wheeled transportation assets are becoming the best in the Army for line-haul operations. The goal of the USAR transportation structure is to leverage industry to form a worldwide USAR power-projection platform. With the evolution of transportation equipment and computerized fleet management and the increase in technically competent USAR personnel, USAR transportation will become extremely effective and a powerful enabler for the Total Army. USAR transportation assets needed to deploy forces and deliver sustainment support will be fully integrated into the Total Army mission.
The USAR has developed new supply functions that will radically transform a supply-based, mass inventory system into a distribution-based supply system. The USAR plans to create a retail supply support organization that will allow USAR DS and GS supply units to provide retail supply support to active and reserve component units while maintaining a reliable, productivity-based operation; allow USAR soldiers to train on tasks related to their unit's wartime (MTOE) mission using assigned unit organic equipment and systems; and provide for peacetime use of logistics Standard Army Management Information Systems (STAMIS) fielded to USAR units. These actions will promote an Army transition that significantly reduces the density and redundancy of supplies, including prescribed load lists, authorized stockage lists, and other repair parts and depot stockage levels.
The USARC also manages the overseas deployment for training (ODT) program, allowing Army Reserve units to perform mission-related training while providing mission-essential medical, transportation, maintenance and engineering capabilities to America's Army. Through the ODT program, Army Reserve soldiers and units have deployed to Southwest Asia and Central America to provide support to active army missions in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Jordan, Honduras, Guatemala and Haiti.
On the homefront, the USARC is involving Army Reserve soldiers in the Civil-Military Cooperation Program (CMCP). The program uses the Army Reserve's expertise to provide communities around America with mission-related support and allows for disaster response planning and preparations.
In its 2005 BARC Recommendations, the Department of Defense recommended that USARC be relocated to Pope Air Force Base, NC. Its former station, Fort McPherson, GA, would be closed permenantly.