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Division References

  • FM 5-71-100 DIVISION ENGINEER COMBAT OPERATIONS, 22 APRIL 1993
  • FM 6-20-2 TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES FOR CORPS ARTILLERY, DIVISION ARTILLERY, AND FIELD ARTILLERY BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, 07 JAN 1993
  • FM 6-20-30 TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES FOR FIRE SUPPORT FOR CORPS AND DIVISION OPERATIONS, 18 OCT 1989
  • FM 17-18 LIGHT ARMOR OPERATIONS, 08 MAR 1994
  • FM 17-95 CAVALRY OPERATIONS, 24 DEC 1996
  • FM 63-2 DIVISION SUPPORT COMMAND, ARMORED, INFANTRY, AND MECHANIZED INFANTRY DIVISIONS, 20 MAY 1991
  • FM 63-2-1 DIVISION SUPPORT COMMAND, LIGHT INFANTRY, AIRBORNE, AND AIR ASSAULT DIVISION, 16 NOV 1992
  • FM 71-100 DIVISION OPERATIONS, 28 AUG 1996
  • FM 71-100-2 INFANTRY DIVISION OPERATIONS TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES, 31 AUG 1993
  • FM 71-100-3 AIR ASSAULT DIVISION OPERATIONS, 29 OCT 1996

  • Army Digitization Website

  • TRADOC Division Design Analysis 30 September 1998 [2743 kb PDF - 158 pages]
  • Army Division XXI [1209 kb PDF - 32 pages]
  • FORCE XXI DIVISION (MX) AS OF 15 MAY 1999

  • Evolution of US Army Divisional Structures In the mid-1960s, the Army added the air assault division. During the 1980s, the Army fielded a motorized division and several light infantry divisions. The early 1990s brought significant changes to the world and the Army. The motorized division was deleted from the force structure.

  • Army to beef up divisions (Army News Service, Nov. 8, 1999) - At least 8,000 soldiers more than usual will move to divisions and armored cavalry regiments over the next year. About 6,000 of those soldiers will move from garrison positions to divisions and cavalry regiments as soldiers stationed with Table of Distribution and Allowance units come down on rotation orders.
  • ARMY BEGINS MANNING INITIATIVES TO INCREASE UNIT STRATEGIC RESPONSIVENESS Release #99-107 -- November 8, 1999 -- The Army plans to man combat units to 100% by grade and skill level. During this fiscal year, the Army will fill 10 active component divisions and armored cavalry regiments to 100% of their enlisted personnel authorizations.
  • Army National Guard Division Redesign by Lieutenant Colonel Bernard F. Veronee, Jr. Army Logistician JULY-AUGUST 1999 -- Army Reserve was restructured significantly by converting the vast majority of its combat units to combat service (CS) and combat service support (CSS) units. This resulted in approximately 56 percent of the total remaining combat units being in the Army National Guard (ARNG). It is in these units that the next major reserve component force structure change is to take place. This change will result from the ARNG Division Redesign Study (ADRS).
  • ARMY ANNOUNCES FINAL DOWNSIZE PHASE PLAN Release # 98- 61 January 4, 1999 -- A key element of this plan is that necessary force structure reductions will be achieved by accelerating planned unit reorganizations, not by eliminating units from the force.
  • 24th Infantry Division reactivated (Army News Service, June 11, 1999) - The reactivated division consists of three Army National Guard brigades from Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina.
  • Unit Designation of Two New U.S. Army Active Component/Army National Guard Integrated Divisions Release # 99-028 April 6, 1999 -- The Department of the Army announced today the designations of two Active Component/Army National Guard integrated division headquarters to be activated in October 1999. The 7th Infantry Division will be located at Fort Carson, Colo., and the 24th Infantry Division will be at Fort Riley, Kan
  • Unit designation of two new U.S. Army active component/Army National Guard integrated divisions USAREUR NEWS RELEASE 990408-6 April 8, 1999 -- The Department of the Army announced today the designations of two Active Component/Army National Guard integrated division headquarters to be activated in October 1999. The 7th Infantry Division will be located at Fort Carson, Colo., and the 24th Infantry Division will be at Fort Riley, Kan., with a forward element at Fort Jackson, S.C.
  • Agreement forms two new active/Guard divisions (Army News Service, Oct. 15, 1998) --Two new integrated divisions were formed Oct. 12 with signing of a memorandum of agreement between the active Army and National Guard.
  • Active Component/Army National Guard Integrated Division MOA Signing 12 October 1998 - In 1995, the Commission on Roles and Missions (CORM) recommended a greater integration and cooperation between the Army's Active and Reserve components. The Army National Guard Division Redesign Study proposed forming two integrated warfighting divisions. Each integrated division would consist of an active component headquarters and three enhanced Army National Guard Separate Brigades.
  • V Corps Initiates Streamlining Divisions V Corps Public Affairs 10 September 1998 -- The Limited Conversion Division Div XXI is slightly smaller, but we gain a significant amount of combat power overall.
  • New Army heavy division designed for 'hot' or 'cold' operations by Gerry J. Gilmore (Army News Service, June 9, 1998) -- The Army's first new heavy division for the next century, the 4th Infantry Division at Fort Hood, Texas, is due to come fully on line in the year 2000. Fielding about 15,719 soldiers upon deployment, the new division has some 3,000 less soldiers than the present Army of Excellence heavy division.
  • New design framework for Army XXI heavy division by Jim Caldwell (TRADOC News Service, June 9, 1998) The Army XXI division will have three maneuver brigades -- one armored and two mechanized infantry. The armored brigade will have two armored battalions and one mechanized; mechanized brigades will be two mechanized battalions and one armored. A battalion will have three companies versus four in the current division. Each armored battalion will be equipped with 45 modernized M1A2 Abrams tanks and mechanized battalions will have 45 new M2A3 Bradley Fighting Vehicles. Both systems are due for delivery in fiscal year 2000. Today's battalions have 58 M1A1 Abrams and 58 M2A2 Bradleys respectively.
  • Conservative heavy division: a Signal perpective by Bill Evans Army Communicator Summer 1998 -- The conservative heavy division retained its traditional structure with maneuver brigades, division artillery, aviation brigade and division support. There no longer is an engineer brigade or chemical company in the division.
  • Army leaders announce new design framework for Army XXI heavy division by Jim Caldwell Army Communicator Summer 1998 -- The Army XXI division will have three maneuver brigades -- one armored and two mechanized infantry. The armored brigade will have two armored battalions and one mechanized. Mechanized brigades will be two mechanized battalions and one armored. A battalion will have three companies versus four in the current division.
  • New Division Design Announced Maj Mark Newell 4th Infantry Division Public Affairs -- The first division to convert under this new system will be the Fort Hood-based units of the 4th Infantry Division. The 4ID is also knows as the Army's Experimental Force or EXFOR. The new division will be smaller, going from an authorization of nearly 16,700 to slightly over 15,000. The organization of the new division design is very similar to a current heavy division, with three maneuver brigades, a division artillery, a division support command, an aviation brigade, and several separate battalions comprising the division base. However, with those units, some significant changes will occur.
  • Restructuring the Division: An Operational and Organizational Approach by Lieutenant Colonel Billy J. Jordan, US Army, and Lieutenant Colonel Mark J. Reardon, US Army Military Review May-June 1998 - DXXI features maneuver battalions organized with three maneuver companies equipped with a total of 45 combat platforms compared with the AOE division's four companies and 58 combat platforms. This redesign decision, which resulted in significant manpower and equipment savings, also increased tactical mobility (smaller physical footprint), reduced the logistic tail and decreased strategic deployment requirements while sacrificing none of the division's overall lethality. The organic DXXI fire-support capabilities have also been improved over its AOE counterpart. The DXXI artillery organization will have a two-battery Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) battalion that includes a target acquisition battery. In response to the acknowledged need for change, the Army opted to conduct extensive experimentation to identify the optimal organization for future divisions. In preparation for advanced warfighting experiments (AWEs), Army leaders asked the US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) to consider several new division designs.
  • Changing How We Change by Major Jon J. Peterson, US Army Military Review May-June 1998 - The US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) established the Joint Venture office to oversee and provide guidance for development of the concepts, equipment, organization, procedures and training for the Force XXI division. The overall plan for Army XXI Division analysis consisted of four primary elements
  • Structuring Division XXI by Colonel John J. Twohig, US Army, Major Thomas J. Stokowski, US Army, and Major Bienvenido Rivera, US Army Reserve Military Review May-June 1998 - At first glance, Army XXI Division appears to be a smaller AOE division version. The division has three maneuver brigades, division artillery (DIVARTY), an aviation brigade, a division support command (DISCOM) and separate battalions that form the division base, as depicted by the figure on page 20. Looks are deceiving. Significant changes have occurred within those organizations that facilitate operational concept execution, exploit system capabilities and contribute to information superiority.
  • Joint Venture: Both Process and Product by Colonel Albert F. Turner Jr., US Army Military Review May-June 1998 - Allegedly equipped with technology too difficult for the average soldier to use; technology that changes every 18 months; multiple moving parts that are supposedly interoperable but whose update management is extraordinarily complex, Force XXI has its fair share of detractors and critics.
  • Building the 21st-Century Heavy Division By General William W. Hartzog, US Army, and Lieutenant Colonel James G. Diehl, US Army Military Review March-April 1998 - The new Army XXI heavy division is unique for its smaller size (about 15,000 troops), its smaller and more compact combat elements (45 combat platforms in maneuver battalions) and its reliance on digital technology and computers.
  • ARMY ANNOUNCES DIVISIONS TO REMAIN IN THE 10-DIVISION FORCE - February 10, 1995 -- The 10-division Army will consist of four light divisions (light infantry, airborne and air assault) and six heavy divisions (mechanized infantry and armored), all stationed at existing installations. All divisions will consist of three active component brigades. Some divisions will have one brigade stationed at a different location.
  • Army of Excellence Armored Division Objective Table of Organization and Equipment 11/18/97
  • PRELUDE TO ARMY XXI - U.S. Army Division Design Initiatives and Experiments 1917-1995 Glen R. Hawkins and James Jay Carafano -- United States Army Center of Military History -- 1997
  • INFLUENCES ON U.S. ARMY DIVISIONAL ORGANIZATION IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY by John B. Wilson --- December 1995.
  • The Test - World War I
  • Prelude To Combat
  • The history of the A.E.F. By Shipley Thomas
  • THE PERSHING-MARCH CONFLICTIN WORLD WAR I by DONALD SMYTHE



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Page last modified: 05-07-2011 01:35:33 ZULU