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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)


In the second half of the 1950s the main Soviet Aircraft Design Bureau raised the question of how to further the development of bombers. Advances in the field of rocketry, the creation of new highly effective strategic nuclear missile systems and the emergence of armed air defense anti-aircraft guided missiles prompted the military-political leadership of the leading aviation powers to revise views on combat aircraft. There was a concept of complete abandonment of the manned combat aircraft in the national defense system. However, in absolute form the idea of full rocket defense forces did not survive anywhere but skewed towards the use of unmanned aerial vehicles was clearly evident.

And if the United States largely debated in the pages of magazines specialized aviation and defense system continued to evolve fairly balanced, relying on a combination of missile and air assets, the Soviet Union, largely influenced by the subjective views of the Khrushchev and intimate ingluence of the missile lobby, more and more it was planned to sharply turn toward the combat missile systems to the detriment of the development of manned space vehicles.

The Soviet leadership, in contrast to the rich of America, with limited economic and financial capacity, had to make a choice between two programs of shock and defensive systems based missile or air assets. Both ways were equivalently expensive, and the USSR economy could withstand a large overvoltage is only one of them, the most effective. Military and political leadership stopped on a variant of the maximum improvement of missile systems and the development of minimally necessary, equipped with missile weapons combat aircraft systems.

In light of the new conceptual directions and views on weapons systems in OKB Tupolev since mid-50s began to develop the work, creation and development of new technology. The work went in two directions. In 1956-1957, the. EDO was created within a specialized unit, whose task was the design of unmanned aerial vehicles for different purposes. The second focus was to develop on the basis of the Design Bureau which designed the aircraft carrier aviation and missile systems. This approach allowed to retain EDO aviation theme and exclude complete its reorientation on the missile system, as happened with OKB Lavochkin OKB V.M.Myasishchev.

In August 1958, Tupolev was at one of the meetings which was attended by almost all higher political leadership of the country and on which to decide their future course of work of the domestic aviation industry. It was announced that it was decided that as soon as possible to close all the problems associated with the bombers, by further developing the basic Tu-22 and Air-missile system on its basis. The proposal was noted by the leadership of the country, military aviation theme for EDO has been preserved, and began design work on further improvement of the Tu-22 aircraft.

The idea of creating on the basis of the Tu-22 was considered a high-speed aircraft and were worked in the bureau, from the first moments of the birth of this project. Back in 1954, when only just been issued the job on a plane "105" - the future of the Tu-22, it was assumed, using more powerful engines, design on its base plane "106", calculated at a rate corresponding to M-2. According to the decree of the USSR Council of Ministers #1605-726 from 07/30/54 and the orders of MAP #489 from 08.10.54 OKB-156 was to build aircraft "106" based on the "105" aircraft with two AM-17 or HP-9 engines.

Difficulties with the layout of two of the major engines as NK-6, as well as delays in terms of their willingness to be installed on the plane made "106" developers airplane consider a number of alternative engine placement, as well as to evaluate the possibility of using other types of engines for the "106" project. This theme in the bureau received the designation aircraft "106A" (Tu-106A).

The basic difference in the layout of project "106A" of the aircraft projects, "106" and "106b" was the location of engines in nacelles under the wing of an airplane wing shape in the plan and design of the project was similar to "106b" "thin wing." The fuselage similar to "106b". empennage was performed on a T-shaped pattern with a controlled stabilizer on the top of the keel. Nacelles for one or two motors with separate channels equip Dov mixed air intakes with adjustable compression ver locally wedge. The first draft of a nacelle air intake nicknames significantly go beyond the front edge of the wing.

It was extremely irrational from the normal conditions of flow around a wing at supersonic speed and efficiency of the supersonic air intakes in a large perturbations on the forward fuselage and the inability to use the preload on the wing surfaces and fuselage. In later projects plane "106A" based on blowdown, gondolas are arranged so that the air inlets do not go beyond the front edge of the wing. All "106A" of the aircraft projects the main landing gear retracted into the space formed by the main body design of air intakes engine nacelles.

It was suggested that a large number of "106" aircraft engines options for the SC-6, R-15B-300 "0", the HP-19R2, but none of them received the further implementation. On the basis of the work on the aircraft, "106A" OKB Tupolev were prepositional projects short- and governmental supersonic passenger aircraft "134" type of project (Tu-134), designed to carry 50-70 passengers at a distance of 4000-4500 km subsonic and at a distance of 3000-3500 km at supersonic speed, while ensuring the cruising supersonic speed 2100 km / h. These projects have not been implemented.

A review of studies OKB Tupolev aircraft on the "106", which is a deep modernization of the Tu-22, it leads to the following conclusions. Trying to significantly improve the basic version of the Tu-22 through evolution did not give a positive result for many reasons, objective and subjective. The shift in the project "106" in the direction of single-mode supersonic built upon presentation of high flying aircraft requirements for both supersonic and subsonic greatly complicated the task of designers and made it difficult to find the most effective solutions. This inevitably led to major problems in the design, hence largely constant bursts and attenuation in the work on the Tu-106 ended with the cessation of work on the project. In the resolution of the basic contradiction, there was a constant in the design of efficient heavy supersonic combat aircraft, was in the first approximation is found only after the introduction of the practice of heavy aircraft wing with variable sweep flight would create a military aircraft and aircraft systems, effective as supersonic and subsonic.

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Page last modified: 09-02-2018 18:54:04 ZULU