Strategic Naval Bomber-Scout
At about the same time as the American "Sea Master" in Britain, there was also a development of a multipurpose seaplane that could be used as a patrol, bomber and transport. Among other projects, the firm "Saunders-Roe" also developed a plane with a canard layout, with a backward sweep of both the wing and the front horizontal tail. Power plant was 4 turbojet engines in the root part of the wing.
Aviation in the mid-1950s experienced an upswing, generated by the ability to fly faster than sound and "uncovering" the secrets of atomic energy. The first successes associated with the flights of supersonic fighters, were fertile ground for predictions, sometimes fantastic. Perhaps there was not a single aircraft designer who did not want to express himself in this respect. No less were these "viruses" and politicians susceptible, since aviation, along with the atomic bomb, as the only means of delivery in those years, was a symbol of the power of the state.
The pace of development of science and technology in the aircraft industry in the 1950s was so high that the military managed to issue more and more new, new and sometimes new and sometimes too optimistic requirements to aircraft for the aviation design bureau. No less fantastic proposals were made by the leading design bureaus. These studies have taken decades to understand the impossibility of achieving the required reliability and safety of operation of such equipment.
The apogee of this euphoria was the proposal to create giant bombers with supersonic cruising speed and range of flight without intermediate landing and refueling in the air about 15,000 km. Simply fantastic! At that time it was considered highly probable that the enemy could simultaneously disable a significant part of the airfields of long-range aviation. As an alternative to land planes, in OKB-49, OKB-156 and OKB-23 under the direction of GM Beriev, AN Tupolev and VM Myasishchev, based on the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 1119-582 of August 15, 1956, the development of draft designs began "A distant naval bomber-scout." The dispersion of seaplanes-bombers along the seas and oceans would allow not only to preserve the combat vehicles, but also strike back.
According to the task, the seaplane should develop a maximum speed of 1700-1800 kilometers per hour at an altitude of 10-11 kilometers and have a practical range with a subsonic cruising speed of 950 kilometers per hour, with a 5 percent fuel reserve and 5 tons of bombs of 7,500-8,000 kilometers. If it was necessary to approach the target with supersonic speed (which is the main mode of the combat vehicle), the limiting range was reduced to 6000-6500 kilometers. High demands were also placed on the seaworthiness of the aircraft. So, take-off should have taken place at a wave height of up to 1.5 meters, and landing - on the wave to 1.8 meters.
- In OKB-23 Myasishchev the project of this aircraft received the serial number "70". It was expected that the "flying boat" with a take-off weight of 200 tons will fly with a cruising speed of 950 kilometers per hour (maximum - 1800 km / h) to a distance of 6500-7500 kilometers. With two refueling from submarines, the estimated range was 18,000-20,000 kilometers. In August 1957, OKB-23 provided the customer with a preliminary design of the seaplane, and this was all over.
- A draft design of a similar aircraft was developed in OKB-49 by G.M. Beriyeva. A few months earlier, on March 28, 1956, by the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 422-261 (order on MAP No. 194 of April 6, 1956), Beriev's OKB received the task of designing a supersonic flying boat of a torpedo scout. Unlike the aircraft under the project "70", it was considered as the carrier of an anti-ship cruise missile. On paper everything turned out smoothly and in A. Tupolev, because each of the main designers tried to get a good order.
- Bartini, who returned to Moscow in the second half of the 1950s, did not resist. All attempts of the designer to get a job as a deputy to the leading design bureaus were not crowned with success. The only one who did not refuse to Robert Ludwigovich was Pavel Vladimirovich Tsybin, who headed OKB-2563, which existed until 1959. There, under his leadership, a supersonic single-seat bomber "RS" was developed - a speed record, then, on its basis, a reconnaissance vehicle and a RCC airplane. In this OKB Bartini continued work on the project of a supersonic strategic bomber, which, according to calculations with a takeoff weight of 250 tons, could fly to a distance of up to 14500-15000 km at a speed of 2500 kilometers per hour and rise to a height of 23,000 meters. This project was subsequently designated A-57. In 1955 the designer of R. Bartini developed a project of a supersonic medium-range bomber A-55, which for a number of reasons was rejected. A further development of the A-55 was the design of the strategic bomber and missile carrier A-57 with a crew of three, proposed by RL Bartini in 1958.
- At the same time, a similar task was received by the OKB of AN Tupolev - to create a naval bomber carrier of cruise missiles.
To effectively solve the problems facing strategic aviation, its combat assets were to ensure: the achievement of any point on the territory of the enemy; the least vulnerability of weapons from enemy air defenses; the most hidden approach to the goal; the ability to approach the goal from any tactically advantageous areas; independence from stationary expensive runways and launching sites. To meet these requirements, an aeronautical missile system was developed, consisting of a carrier aircraft and a projectile aircraft.
Seaplanes are aircraft that are capable of taking off and landing upon water. Seaplanes may fall into two broad categories. In the first category, the lower part of the fuselage is shaped like a boat hull and which, at rest and at low speeds, floats on the surface like a boat. The second category consists of conventional land planes that are mounted on floats in place of, or in addition to, conventional landing gear, which are often referred to as float planes. A seaplane that is also equipped with wheels is called an amphibian: an airplane capable of operating on land or water.
A flying boat or sea plane is constructed and designed to develop hydrodynamic lift on take-off and landing. Added speed increase the water resistance and drag rather drastically during take-off and landing. The use of the forward motion of the hull to raise the craft partially out of the water and thereby reduce hull to water friction is well understood. The V-shape enablea the flying boat, as speed is increased, to be pushed upwardly out of the water, as the water traversing against the flying boat's bow is forced sideways and downwardly at a vector to the outer shape of the hull.
Examples of the more highly developed and sophisticated designs are racing hydroplanes and the floats or pontoons of seaplanes. Craft of the planing type are usually lightly constructed and exhibit a bottom designed to present an angle of attack to the water when driven at high speed. The force of the water against the angled bottom raises the hull up and out of the water where it will skim over the surface much as a flattened rock when skipped across the water by a child at play. When the speed of the rock decreases below a certain critical speed, the rock sinks. Just so does the planing hull when the applied propulsion power drops below that amount required to keep the water-craft "on plane."
With V-shaped hull designs, initially, as velocity begins to increase from zero, the bow of the boat acts much like a plow, digging into and through the surface of the water. This creates what is known as a "bow wave". As velocity increases more, the bow tends to be forced upwardly by the sideways and downward force being applied to the water by the curvature of the V-shape of the hull being forced horizontally forward and up over the bow wave.
Finally, when sufficient velocity is approached then reached, the apex of the force on the V-shaped hull travels aftwardly along the hull, forcing the boat more upwardly to an increasing degree until a point is reached at which the bow, now out of the water, tends, by force of gravity, to descend toward the water, pivoting on the apex of the force against the sides and bottom of the V-shaped hull. This pivoting serves to raise the stern of the boat as the bow descends until the whole boat is lifted upwardly onto what is known as a plane. At this point, because there is relatively less water contacting the hull, drag from that water is reduced and the boat is correspondingly able to go significantly faster given the same amount of force propelling the boat forward.
A craft of the planing type, if driven with sufficient propulsion power to get "on plane", will ride atop the surface of the water without displacing anything near its own weight of water. A -craft "on plane" can utilize propulsion power to achieve speed. It is characteristic of conventional planing type craft that inordinate amounts of propulsion power must be expended simply to raise the hull partially out of the water and to get the water-craft "on plane". Once the craft is "on plane", the applied driving force at once becomes more effective to produce speed.
An accepted design of demonstrated efficiency for planing hulls is a conventionally developed bow and midship section extending approximately two-thirds of the total hull length. At this point is located the "step", which is simply an abrupt vertical displacement of the bottom from which displacement the trailing one-third of the hull continues aft to the stern.
Operation of the stepped planing hull is simplicity itself. The stepped planing hull is driven forward with sufficient applied propulsion power to achieve a speed such that the upward pressure of the water acting on the submerged bow and midship sections raises the hull to the extent that only those hull sections forward the step ride in the water. At this point not only has the total water displacement of the hull been markedly reduced, but the entire aft one-third of the hull has been lifted and freed from the drag of the water. The hull, riding the water in this particular aspect is said to be, "on the step", or "on plane".
While some of the prior art aircraft achieved moderate operational success, few achieved long term success and this lack of long term success is directly attributable to the fact that these seaplanes were not competitive in terms of cost of ownership. As is well-known in the art, cost of ownership is heavily dependent on first cost of the aircraft and its operating performance, specifically in terms of cruising speed relative to horsepower. It is also well-known in the art that the efficiency of seaplanes is degraded by the need to keep the engines as clear of the water and spray as possible. Doing so results in having the thrust line of propulsion high and above the center of overall aerodynamic drag rather than having the two forces essentially in line during cruise performance.
The main competitor for strategic supersonic aircraft at the turn of the 1950s - 1960s were intercontinental ballistic missiles, for which at that time did not have time to create an "antidote". As a result, the design bureau of Bartini was disbanded, and Myasishchev OKB-23 reoriented to the missile theme, appointing a designer as the TsAGI chief. The collapse of the aviation industry continued until 1964, when the First Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, NS Khrushchev, was sent to "deserved rest".
|Engines||NC-10||NC-10b||M 16-17 b||YJ93-GE-3|
|Takeoff thrust, kgf||4 24,000||5x24000||4x21000||6x14060|
|Wing area, M?||-||745||302||585|
|Takeoff weight, T-normal||—||200||165||205|
|Weight of the empty plane, T||—||87||—||108|
|Fuel weight, T-normal||—||108||102.8||-|
|Bomb load, t||-||5||5||—|
|Rated speed, km/h-maximum||2500||3000||2300||3218|
|Practical ceiling, km||18-23||23-24||19||21.3|
|Radius of action, km-without refuelling||—||6000-6500||2650||—|
|-with one refueling in flight||-||8000-9000 4000-4050||—|
|-with one refueling in flight and one refueling from the submarine||—||12000-14000||—||—|
|-With shifting takeoff weight|
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