Beriev SD-MBR Long-range naval bomber-scout
Based on the design of the twin-engine supersonic reconnaissance aircraft developed in 1956-1957 by the OKB-49 by G.M. Beriev, in 1957 the design of a Supersonic Long-range Naval Bomber Reconnaisance [Sverxzvukovogo Dalyniy Morskoy bombardirovshchik-razvedchik - SD-MBR, not LED-ICBM] aircraft with four NK-6 engines was started. A working design of the aircraft was developed, a pilot sample was being prepared, but the work was canceled due to changes in customer requirements.
The basis for its implementation was the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR # 1119-582 of 15 August 1956. During this period, the Air Force headquarters was determined with the capabilities and characteristics of advanced aircraft, seaplanes, cruise missiles and "projectile carrier aircraft" systems, proposals for arming the Air Force with long-range combat weapons.
Therefore OKB VM. Myasischeva, A.N. Tupolev and G.M. Beriev, with the participation of TsAGI, had to develop the projects of a long-range naval bomber-scout with the following main TTX:
- Maximum flight speed: 1700-1800 km / h
- Practical flight range: 7500-8000 km
- Normal combat load: 5000 kg
- Rise at a wind wave height: up to 1.5 m
- Landing with wind wave height: up to 1.8 m.
Almost simultaneously with OKB Beriev, a similar task was received by the design bureau Tupolev and Myasischev. Materials on this project are almost entirely not preserved.
According to the concept of the designers, the aircraft was intended for joint operations with submarines, as well as for independent actions on ocean communications. It had to be able to take off and land, as well as stay afloat in the open sea, day and night in difficult weather conditions, to meet with the submarine at a given point after a long flight over the water at a great distance from the shore, fueled by submarines and surface ships in the open sea at a sea state of 3-4, to fly to the target, with search for the detection and use of weapons day and night in any weather conditions and with strong radio countermeasures against the enemy.
The project particularly emphasized the possibility of dispersal on the seas and inland lakes of the USSR, in the event of a threat of an enemy nuclear strike.
It was clear that in order to achieve the specified flight performance, the power of the two engines was clearly not enough. OKB Beriev proposed a revised project for four engines. According to the tactical and technical requirements, the seaplane was to be designed for NK-6 engines by N.Kuznetsov. However, in-depth work on the project showed that the use of the prospective NK-10 would create a car with higher flight performance, so in the final version, the designers of the Beriev Design Bureau settled on this engine.
The long-range naval bomber reconnaissance was intended: for conducting reconnaissance in the interests of submarines, striking enemy formations and convoys, issuing coordinates of targets to submarines, and for conducting independent combat operations on enemy ocean communications.
It provided for a long stay afloat, takeoff and landing with strike weapons day and night in difficult weather conditions, in the open ocean at sea state of 3-4, meeting with a submarine at a given location after a long flight at a great distance from the coast with subsequent refueling. The machine was supposed to solve problems in conditions of strong counteraction and application of the enemy of all air defense means in approaching the target. With a two-time refueling from the submarine, the range at supersonic speed could be brought to 20,000 km.
The complexity and novelty of the task was that the experience of designing and building such aircraft at that time was absent. It was necessary to solve a number of new problems, mainly in terms of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic layouts, strength, application of new take-off and landing devices that provide acceptable overloads and good seaworthiness at high takeoff and landing speeds. It was also necessary to prove the technical possibility of creating a heavy-duty high-speed seaplane.
For the successful solution of these and other tasks, it was necessary to mobilize all the previously accumulated experience. Based on the results of experimental studies of various models of seaplanes (tailless, flying wing and others) in the wind tunnels of TsAGI, an analysis of possible flight performance and tactical application of the apparatus was carried out.
As a result of the analysis of different variants, a layout with a thin wing and a boat of great elongation was adopted. In addition to meeting the purely "aviation" factors set out in tactical requirements, it was also necessary to ensure a given seaworthiness in a troubled sea. As a result, designers reached conclusions on the possibility of creating a heavy supersonic seaplane.
The use of such a device as a naval bomber or a carrier of anti-ship cruise missiles, turned out to be inexpedient, since by its characteristics it was inferior to land bombers of a similar purpose. But the unconditional interest was the use of a seaplane as a scout, as well as for solving other tasks. Especially the military was fascinated by the possibility of an emergency dispersal of vehicles in the sea and ocean expanses in the event of a nuclear strike by the enemy with subsequent fulfillment of the assigned combat missions. The combat load (cruise missile) was to be placed in a fuselage compartment with a length of 11 meters, equipped with bottom flaps and deck large-sized loading hatch.
The aircraft was supposed to provide the solution of tasks in conditions of strong opposition from the air defense forces of the enemy. However, the capabilities of the aircraft as a bomber and carrier aircraft anti-ship missiles were significantly lower than the capabilities of an aircraft of similar take-off mass, but land-based.
Preparations were made to lay down an experimental aircraft. But the strategic views of the customer by that time had undergone significant changes, and Beriev's OKB switched to another project.
Preference was given to the creation of an aircraft in variants of a scout of the far ocean zone, a target designation aircraft. On the basis of the SD-MBR aircraft, an reconnaissance plane was designed, which was to be in the far ocean zone and provide target designations for ship missile systems with anti-ship missiles when enemy ships were found. The airborne equipment of the aircraft was to include reconnaissance and target designation stations, data transmission facilities; means of destruction on board the aircraft was not provided.
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