In 1952, Bartini, who was deprived of the opportunity to work in the capital, was appointed head of the department of perspective schemes of the Siberian Research Institute of Aviation named after. SA Chaplygin (SibNIA) in Novosibirsk, based on the base evacuated there during the war TsAGI. Here, research was conducted on wing profiles, on the theory of the boundary layer of the wing, and on methods of controlling it at subsonic and supersonic speeds, on a self-balancing supersonic wing with minimal loss of aerodynamic quality in the transition from subsonic to supersonic speed. Being an excellent mathematician, Bartini literally figured out the shape of the wing, without expensive blowdowns of models in wind tunnels. At the same time, Robert Ludwigovich proposed new aerodynamic profiles,
The project of RL Bartini, presented in 1955, planned the creation of a supersonic A-55 flying boat-bomber of medium range, where the figure 55 represented the year in which the project was presented. The seaplane had the ability to replenish fuel reserves in the ocean, in the immediate vicinity of enemy shores, from surface ships and submarines. In addition, for seaplanes, huge aerodromes with super-strong multi-kilometer concrete runways, which were excellent targets for the enemy's attack weapons, were not required. Initially, the project was rejected, because declared characteristics unrealistic. The appeal to S.P.Korolev helped, which helped to substantiate the project experimentally. Dozens of models with different variants of the wing were manufactured and manufactured.
As follows from the "Material for the project of the A-57 aircraft," approved on January 3, 1958, in the same 1952 in SibNIA under the direction of Bartini conducted a study of a new scheme of supersonic strategic aircraft such as the flying wing. "It is known," the document says, "that the flying wing scheme has advantages over other schemes in aerodynamic quality and weight efficiency. High values of these parameters make it possible to consider the scheme of the flying wing as one of the promising ones for strategic aircraft.
However, realizing the advantages of the flying wing required the development of special longitudinal balancing devices that did not lead to a decrease in aerodynamic quality in the cruise flight regime and did not reduce the weight return of the aircraft, as well as the development of an aerodynamic arrangement of a power plant with low harmful resistance.
As a result of the research carried out at SibNIA, the principal methods for solving these problems were developed. It was found that by geometric twist of the wing it is possible to obtain with balance or even some increase in maximum aerodynamic quality the balancing of the wing in a cruising flight mode with a sufficient reserve of centering. The special arrangement of engines in the gondola with the discharge of the boundary layer and with the full expansion nozzle or with the liquid contour located in the aft part of the wing center wing significantly reduced the harmful resistance of the power plant.
Other features of the considered scheme of the flying wing are a large sweep, small relative thickness of section profiles, a decrease in sweep to the ends of the wing, application in the root sections of profiles with back concavity. This configuration feature allows to obtain: a small displacement of the focus during the transition from subsonic to supersonic flight speeds, an increase in aerodynamic quality due to the positive interference between the wing compartments recruited from profiles with back concavity and from symmetrical profiles; an increase in the centered volumes and the weighting of the aircraft."
The results of these studies in 1956 were used as the basis for the project of a supersonic seaplane-bomber A-55 with an oval wing and four NK-10 engines. While most of the creators of the machines of a similar purpose turned to the triangular wing, which joined the fashion, connected with the conventional fuselage, Robert Ludwigovich proposed an integrated circuit for the aircraft. The hull A-55 was a single bearing surface in which the wing and fuselage could only be divided conditionally.
The first variant of the A-55 had a front horizontal tail and a truck landing gear dumped after take-off. In the process of clarifying the appearance of this car from the wheels raised, replacing them with skis and placing a bet on the amphibian version.
The A-55 amphibian could take off and land on the water surface, on snow and ice, which allowed it to be operated from forward-based airfields prepared in the Arctic on drifting ice floes. According to the designer's plans, the aircraft could replenish fuel reserves in the ocean, in the immediate vicinity of the enemy's coast, from surface ships and submarines. The aircraft's capabilities were impressive, but its project was rejected by the Ministry of Aviation Industry. Project A-55 frightened the need for the introduction of new technological processes and a very large amount of research and testing on stands and flying laboratories. In addition, no one knew exactly how this would end. The risk, without which essential progress of technology is impossible, for the bureaucratic quarry was frighteningly large.
Initially, the project was rejected, since the claimed characteristics were considered unrealistic, although in this work, in addition to SibNIA, the employees of TsAGI and 1DiAM participated. He got help from SP Korolyov, who helped to substantiate the project experimentally. Over 40 models were purged and about 40 volumes of reports were written.
In 1956 Bartini was rehabilitated.
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