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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Iraq Survey Group Final Report


Key Findings1
Evolution of the Nuclear Weapons Program3
The Regime and WMD Timeline3
The Early Years: Ambition3
Decline (1991-96)4
Recovery and Transition (1996-2002)5
Miscalculation (2002-2003)6
Results of ISG's Investigation on Nuclear Issues7
Investigation Into Uranium Pursuits and Indigenous Production Capabilities9
Foreign Pursuits9
Indigenous Production Capabilities11
Iraq's Known Uranium Holdings13
Iraqi Uranium Conversion Program15
Aluminum Tube Investigation21
Elements of ISG Investigation21
Purported High-Level Interest in Aluminum Tubes22
Possible Association of Iraqi Nuclear Entities With the Tubes22
Tube Characteristics and Shipping Requirements23
Indigenous Tube Manufacture-A Possible Sign Baghdad Did Not Need High-Specification Tubes27
Iraqi Interest in 84-mm Tubes30
Carbon Fiber30
Carbon Fiber and Iraq's Pre-1991 Gas Centrifuge Program30
Iraqi Concealment of Carbon Fiber-Related Activity, Materials, and Documents After Operation Desert Storm31
The MIC Carbon Fiber Project in 2001/200232
Flow-Forming Machinery33
Planned Magnet Production Lines at Al Tahadi34
Procurement Details36
Rotating Machinery Department36
Investigation of Potential Centrifuge-Related Facilities38
Support Facilities38
Ash Shaykhili Storage Facility39
Al Karama State Company39
Al-Wazeriya Site39
Khadimiyah Site (Ibn Al-Haytham Missile R&D Center)39
Al Samud Factory (Abu Ghurayb Missile Facility)39
Badr and Umm Al-Marik State Companies (Khan Azad Military Production Plant)39
Al-Tahadi State Company40
Salah Al Din State Company (Samarra Electronics Plant)40
Al-Nida State Company40
Rashid State Company's Tho Al-Fiqar Factory (formerly the Nassr State Establishment Mechanical Plant)40
Ur State Company (An-Nasiriyah Aluminum Fabrication Plant)40
Uranium Enrichment-EMIS42
Electromagnetic Isotope Separation (EMIS)42
Al Safa'a EMIS Plant at Tarmiya42
Al Fajr EMIS Plant at Ash Sharqat45
Al-Jazira (Mosul Feed Materials Production Facility)45
Al-Zawra State Company45
Al-Nida State Company (Zaafaraniya Mechanical Workshop Al-Rabiyah)45
Al-Radwan (Batra Military Production Facility)47
Al-Nassr Al-Adhim State Company47
Disposition of EMIS-Related Equipment47
Laser Research in Iraq50
Laser Related Work After Operation Desert Storm50
Current Status and Future Potential51
Iraq's Pre-1991 LIS Efforts51
Rail Gun Summary52
Rail Gun Efforts52
Issues Related to NuclearWeapons Design and Development59
Casting Technology59
Explosive and Lens Fabrication Capabilities59
High-Speed Switches60
Fireset Development and Testing60
Neutron Generators60
Migration of the Capabilities From the PC-3 Nuclear Weapons Project61
IAEC Modernization66
Interest in the IAEC and Intervention by Saddam Husayn66
Increased Funding and Publicity of IAEC Activities67
Infrastructure Improvements at the IAEC: The Modernization Project67
Perceptions the Regime Was Preparing for Reconstitution of the Nuclear Program69
IAEC Work on Neutron Generators69
University Programs70
Hidden Enrichment Technology73
Survey of Structures at Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center75
A. Definitions Used by Teams During Survey81
B. Team Results83
C. Analysis of the Videotapes Compiled From Video Recce Mission 5/6 November 200391
D. Results of Mission Survey of Tuwaitha Nuclear ComplexOver the Period 20-22 November107
E. Summary of Known UN-Tagged Equipment113
F. Photography Highlights: Tuwaitha Mission, 20-22 November 2003117
G. Tuwaitha Maps, Buildings, and Numbers127



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