Tu-12 was the latest version of Tu-2, although it must be admitted that it was not just a variation on a well-known topic. This plane, perhaps, was even better known under the index Tu-77, which continued the numbering of the ANT aircraft, and not the Tu-12, as it was called in military aviation.
The Tu-12 became the first Soviet jet bomber. According to Tupolev, it was to be an intermediate step towards the development of more modern structures and prepare the flight crews to operate even larger jet engines. Under the leadership of Tupolev, the program was implemented by Sergey Eger. Based on the fuselage, wing and tail of the Tu-2, Eger made changes to the design that took into account the higher speeds of a jet plane. The Tu-12 turned out to be one of the few jet aircraft of the 1940s with separated tail tails. The chassis was also changed: instead of a tail wheel, a three-wheeled chassis with a nose wheel was designed.
Rolls-Roysov Nene engines were suspended under the wings. For several years after the end of the war, the British government did not object to the supply of aircraft engines and other aviation equipment to the Soviet Union. And although Soviet engine designers worked tirelessly to build jet engines, by the time Tu-12 was created in 1947, even on MiG-15 fighters, Rolls-Royce engines or their licensed copies were still installed. At that time, only Lyulkas jet engines were produced from domestic designs, and even those were almost half as powerful as the Nene engines installed on the Tu-12 up to 2,270 kgf.
The first Tu-12 was built at the 156 aircraft plant. The construction ended in May 1947. The disassembled aircraft was delivered to Zhukovsky, assembled, and on June 27, test pilot Alexei Perelet raised the new car into the air for the first time. The program of tests passed without serious remarks. The plane, despite the fact that it was an intermediate structure, had high flight characteristics: speed 783 km / h, flight range 2,200 km and a working ceiling of 11,300 m.
The Air Force Commission accepted a prototype, and the 23rd Aircraft Building Plant in Moscow receives an order to build a small series of five aircraft. But they built only three aircraft. Released by the factory in 1950, these machines entered the Air Force and for a short time were used as training equipment. One of them at the Flight Test Institute was used to conduct experiments with rocket engines that were mounted on a pylon on top of the middle part of the fuselage.
|Modification||Tu-12 / Project "77"|
|Wing area, m2||48.80|
|Mass, kg -|
|empty plane||8993 -|
|normal take-off||14700 -|
|maximum take-off||15720 Engine|
|type||2 x TRD RD-45|
|Thrust, kgf||2 x 2200|
|Maximum speed, km / h||783|
|Cruising speed, km / h||564|
|Practical range, km||2200|
|Rate of climb, m / min||625|
|Practical ceiling, m||11300|
|Armament||one NR-23 gun and two UBT machine guns|
|Bomb load||normal - 1000 kg, maximum - 3000 kg.|
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