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Tu-1 ("63P", ANT-63P) Fighter-interceptor

Tu-1 (In the end of 1943, the Air Force assigned the OKB the task of creating an interceptor fighter capable of withstanding strategic bombers with high flight speeds, not only during the day but also at night. This meant that we needed a plane with powerful offensive weapons and radar equipment. OKB started working on the task.

Tu-1 ("63P") was an interceptor and a long-distance escort fighter, a three-seater, an alteration of the second copy of the SDU for AM-43B engines (take-off) 1950 l. with four-bladed screws AV-9K-22A. Powerful weapons: two NS-45 in the modified nose of the fuselage, two NS-23 in the center section and two UBT. Radar station PNB-1 Gneiss-7. Dimensions - like the second "63". The test results, started on March 22, 1947 and completed on November 3, 1947, showed that the aircraft has: speed up to 641 km / h; ceiling 11,000 m; range 2,250 km with a bomb load of 1 ton. However, for the engines that were not given, the aircraft was also not built.

in 1943, the Tupolev Design Bureau developed options for installing on the Tu-2 serial aircraft additional cannon armament (two guns of Nudelman-Suranov NS-45 of 45 mm caliber) and radar. But for the beginning, one Tu-2S radar PNB-4 (a night-fighting device), created under the direction of V. Morgunov and P. Kuksenko in the NKVD-USSR Special Department, was equipped with two 23 mm WY guns. During the tests, the PNB-4 demonstrated the ability to detect air targets in the range from 150 to 5000 meters. Then the second Tu-2C was equipped, but with the Gneiss-5 radar, the design of the NII-20 and two NS-45 guns. On both machines, the radar transmitting antennas were located in the forward fuselage, and the receiving radars were located on the wing consoles.

Tu-1 (The Gneiss-5 station was more powerful and made it possible to detect air targets at a distance of up to 8 km. In the second half of 1945, this radar passed the state tests and, according to the experts of the 3rd department of the Air Force Scientific Research Institute, was not inferior to the English AI.Mk IX, and even exceeded it in a number of parameters.>

Modified vehicles in the Tu-2P version became, in fact, flying laboratories for radar testing, while the Lend-Lease A-20G Boston, which, as was known, was shortly in service with the air defense aircraft, began to equip the Land-lease A-20G. The very first attempt to create a domestic interceptor fighter dates back to 1946, when a decree was signed on February 26 at SNK. In accordance with this document, Tupolev was ordered to build a fighter aircraft with two AM-42V engines with heavy weapons, including two 45 mm and 20 mm cannons for firing forward and a couple of machine guns to protect the rear hemisphere. A special feature of the interceptor was to be an airborne radar station.

Calculations showed that the aircraft, designated Tu-1 (63P, ANT-63P), can reach a speed of 529 km / h on the ground and 680 km / h - at an altitude of 7000 meters, climb to an altitude of 5000 meters in eight minutes and have a ceiling of -10000 meters. When flying at an altitude of 5000 meters at a speed of 0.8 from the maximum value, its range was set at no less than 2000 km. That was enough to fight the B-29 American bomber. The government set the deadline for presenting the car to state tests - December 1, 1946. During the creation of the car, they relied on AM-43B engines with four-bladed AV-9K-22A vane screws with a take-off capacity of 2,300 hp each. and radar Gneiss-7.

In the fighter redid the second copy of the aircraft "SDB", so he received the designation "63P". Factory flight tests began on March 22 and ended on October 3, 1947 after the engines had developed a resource. The results of these tests are not known, and the surviving photographs make it possible to identify only the tail protection radar on an aircraft.

By the time the tests of the Tu-1 (1947) were carried out, the Design Bureau gradually began to conclude that it was no longer possible to create a modern high-capacity interception system for high-speed air targets, relying on the aging piston Tu-2. If at the end of the war, the speed of the Tu-2 in the fighter version exceeded the speeds of the main production bomber, then with the appearance of the first jet bombers in the second half of the 40s, whose speeds approached 900-1000 km / h, the ability to intercept such targets with Tu-class aircraft -2 sharply decreased.

It was necessary to transfer heavy fighter-interceptors to jet propulsion and, as a consequence, an increase in their speeds at least one and a half to two times. The second conclusion was made in the part of the interceptor armament system: it became clear that it was necessary to introduce powerful mobile guided weapons, which would replace the high maneuverability of the light fighter with the power and effectiveness of the firing weapon of the guided weapon. The third conclusion was that the creation of an effective interception complex was possible only with the use of search and aiming on-board radar, the capabilities of which should have significantly exceeded the TTD of the Gneiss stations.

Thus, in the design and testing of interceptors based on the Tu-2 design bureau of A.N.Tupolev, assessing the real level of development of aircraft and airborne equipment, they came to the conclusion that at that time to implement the idea of creating a heavy fighter capable of intercepting modern enemy aircraft on distant frontiers, It is almost impossible to carry out a long search, accompany and guard the battle formations of front-line bombers, based on old practices. Therefore, further work on interceptors of the Tu-1 type in the Design Bureau were discontinued. At the same time, the OKB began to develop a promising concept for the required aircraft of this class, which is part of a single long-range interception complex.

Beginning of work1943
Flight of the first prototypeJuly 18 1944.
Reason for completion of work1947, the presence of jet fighters
Length13.60 m
Height4.55 m
Wingspan18.68 m
Wing area48.80 m.q
Empty weight \ take-off9460 \ 12740 kg
Speed at rated height641 km / h
speed at ground level576 km \ h
Climbing time435 km / h
Range2250 km
Ceiling11,000 meters
Crewthree people
Enginetwo inline AM-43B, power 1950 l.with. each
  • two 23-mm gun NS-23 in the wings,
  • two 45-mm gun NS-45 in the nose and
  • two defensive 12.7-mm machine guns UBT.
  • Tu-1 (63P) Tu-1 (63P)

     Tu-1 (

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    Page last modified: 20-10-2018 18:43:52 ZULU