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Military


SPOON REST P-12 1RL14 Yenisei

The Spoon Rest A-band warning and target acquisition radar has a range of 275 km using a large Yagi antenna array. At regimental HQ for the V-75 SA-2 GUIDELINE there is a fourth Spoon Rest, a van-mounted P-15 Flat Face 250 km range C-band search and tracking radar with two elliptical parabolic reflectors and a PRV-11 Side Net 180 km range E-band nodding height-finder radar mounted on a box-bodied trailer. There is also a radar control truck and a Mercury Grass truck-mounted command communications system for linking the HQ to the three battalions.

The P-12 station was developed in 1954–1956. The equipping of this station with the Air Defense Forces, the Air Force and the Navy Forces raised even more the reliability of the reflection of Western aircraft in all weather conditions and radio countermeasures. The generator of the microwave station was a single-cycle generator with self-excitation and was assembled according to the scheme with a common grounded grid. In 1955–1956 The station underwent state tests at the test site (test engineer FK Solodovnikov) and showed characteristics that fully met the specified GAU requirements. The P-12 radar was put into mass production and was successfully used in the air defense and navy units.

In 1954-1956 In SKB-197 GKRE, the Yenisei long-range radar detection system (P-12) was developed. The chief designer of the station was E. V. Bukvalov. The detection range of this radar aircraft was approximately 200 km. Aircraft could be detected at altitudes up to 25 km. The power of the pulsed radiation station was 180 kW. The P-12 radar was equipped with a number of jamming protection equipment (MTS system and frequency tuning equipment) and a ground-based radar interrogator. The station had three indicators: the built-in IC and the altitude indicator, as well as the remote IC, which could be installed on the command gear of the air defense, air force, and navy.

The P-12 Yenisei mobile anti-jamming range radar for detection and guidance of aircraft P-12 (1955) had coherent compensation equipment SDC (first with the use of mercury delay lines, then - on potentioscopes), which made it possible to eliminate reflections from local objects from the screens of indicators. Radar information - azimuth, range and elevation of the target - was read directly from the indicator screens, the height was determined from the nomogram. The radar provided, with a circular view, the detection range of a MiG-17 fighter of at least 190 km with a target flight altitude of 25,000 m and 140 km with a target flight at an altitude of 10,000 m. 15th edition was issued (1957-1960).

In order to increase the upper limit of the detection zone, the P-12 radar was modernized and received the P-12M index (1956). In the P-12M radar and its subsequent upgrades, in comparison with the P-10 radar, the operating frequency range was expanded, the pulse repetition rate and pulse power were increased. To increase noise immunity from active interference, it was planned to rebuild the carrier frequency to any of the 4 frequencies without radiating electromagnetic energy into space. The P-12M radar used a "wave channel" type antenna of a two-tier structure of 6 elements each. They were combined into an antenna array using cable connections in phase in each tier and “quadrature” (ie 90 ° phase difference) between the tiers. The protection equipment provided target wiring against the background of passive interference and reflections from local objects on all station indicators when the ratio of the jamming signal to the target signal was more than 10 times.

The method of recording the reflected signal on the screen of the tube with afterglow increased the accuracy of measuring the elevation angle (altitude), the count rate, and also made it possible to observe the relative difference in target heights. The graphical altitude nomogram was replaced with a mechanized one with a digital altitude reading, and electrical azimuth marks were introduced into the IKO and the center of the sweep was shifted to any point on the screen. The radar was equipped with a standard and remote ICO, with the ability to remove up to 500 m. In order to prevent the failure of the transmitter in case of emergency de-energization of the fans blowing the generator lamp, it was envisaged to connect them to the batteries.

For radars were developed again with complete unification of the blocks -

  • transmitter generator on a coaxial circuit;
  • a receiver based on small-sized parts and lamps using high-frequency circuits in the form of high-frequency cable sections;
  • wide-range units of the antenna-feeder system with a multivibrator active radiator and an antenna switch with a receiver protection circuit at 2 power levels.
  • single-channel power synchronous-servo drive from antenna to IKO on contactless selsyns;
  • goniometer on ceramics with a large dielectric constant and the possibility of manual or automatic drive;
  • a set of operational measuring equipment attached to the station; wavemeter (indicator), KBV and power meter (indicator), antenna equivalent, indicator of type "A" with the possibility of using it as an oscilloscope. which significantly reduced the control time of the station setup during operation;
  • power supplies using selenium rectifiers.

The station was located on two low-loader trailers in unified metal bodies, due to the installation of ventilation system motors outside the body, the noise level was reduced. To remove ice, the antenna could be lowered in 3-5 minutes, in order to protect it from destruction by a blast wave, the fastening of the antenna mast device to the trailer body was strengthened and equipped with a link of weakness. The number of revolutions of rotation of the antenna was increased to 4 per minute with the provision of reserves of mechanical strength of the antenna for 6 rpm AMU was mounted on the chassis of the hardware trailer. The stationary radar was transported in special packages and placed in a room or dugout. The radar was powered from a 3-phase local network with a voltage of 220 or 380 V. with a frequency of 50 ± 3 Hz or from its own units of the ALD-30 or AD 10-T / 230 type (or the ZSD-10-VS / 230M power plant).

The station used 183 lamps of 27 types and about 100,000 parts. A generator triode of the GN-19B type was specially developed for the radar. high-frequency cables of the RK-61 and RK 62 brands, arresters of the RB-6 type. To create the radar, new materials were used: teflon, ceramics of the T-4 type, tape steel of the HVP type, titanium stainless steel of the YaT-1 brand, mercury in the delay lines.

The radar was provided for interfacing and reserved places in dimensions and weights for the indicator and remote control of the “Top” radio altimeter (transported to the “Top” PRV), target indicator, passive and active interference and a “Primer-18” request. NRZ type "Tantalum-3" (NRZ-8a). Through the specially developed C-12 interface equipment, the P-12M radar was interfaced with the Tundra, Vozdukh, S-YuO, ASURK, and Crab systems.

The P-12 radar after field tests in 1956 was put into service and put into serial production to replace almost all previously created mobile stations for detecting the meter range used in the country's air defense, military and navy. The P-12 radar was used not only for detecting air targets and issuing target indications for the ZA and IA air defense troops, air defense systems of the Navy (the station was installed on the Sverdlov class cruisers), but also appeared in the 50s in the country's air defense systems, troops and fleet anti-aircraft missile systems C-75. This station was first widely used in the army air defense - on the RLP from the composition of the radio engineering battalions, at the command post (in the control batteries) of anti-aircraft artillery and missile formations of the operational unit. Having passed a number of upgrades, this station continues to be successfully operated so far in the specified military units of the air defense of the SV.

Among the most significant upgrades of the P-12 radar is the installation of a new antenna-feeder system on it, which has a range of "wave channels" of lightweight design. In each of the two floors of the new antenna, there were six such "wave channels" that reduced the level of the DND side lobes to 4% (in power). At the same time, an automatic frequency control, an accumulation circuit of the useful signal, and a number of other design changes were introduced into the station.

The main differences between P-12 radar and P-10:

  • changed frequency range;
  • automatic reconfiguration to one of the 4 previously tuned frequencies;
  • more accurate determination of coordinates;
  • increased detection range and ceiling;
  • improved protection against active and passive interference.

    With radar P-12 series began deliveries abroad.

    P-12M SPOON REST-B

    The upgraded P-12M radar in 1958 successfully passed the tests and was put into service. In 1959, the P-12M station shifted the operating frequency band by 10 MHz. In 1962, ground tests of the P-12MP radar were carried out with increased reliability, reduced spurious emissions and the possibility of interfacing with the radar detection of the centimeter range, as well as with the automated control system of the Vozdu-Sh air defense force. In 1970, new additional elements were introduced in the P-12MP radar: flicker equipment to protect against Shrike-type anti-radar missiles (PRR), an ORB scheme in the receiver. Interfacing with the P-15 radar is provided when working on a common remote PWI.

    With all the improvements and upgrades over the years of mass production, a new P12-HA radar (in two cars) and P-12NP (in two trailers) has been developed.

    P-12NA SPOON REST Spoon Rest C

    The P12-NA radar is a further development of the P-12MA radar ("Sura").

    Some differences P-12NA (NP) from P-12MA (MP):

    • increased ceiling and detection range;
    • first specified in the technical conditions (TU) requirement for reliability;
    • introduced a complete shielding of the hardware body and a hidden transmitter tuning to the equivalent of the antenna;
    • provides for joint work on the launch and rotation with other radar systems.

    In the course of work to improve the performance of the P-12NA radar, the following upgrades were carried out:

    • remote control with a distance of 500 m from the radar;
    • implemented protection against homing projectiles (SNS);
    • on-time reduced from 5 to 3 minutes.

    As a result of modernization in radar introduced:

    • new blocks 5;
    • modified blocks 13;
    • modified cabinets 5;
    • increased reliability 1.7 times;
    • Significantly improved the main parameters of the radar detection range, the detection ceiling, the accuracy of determining the coordinates;
    • reduced deployment time;
    • ensured work at an altitude of 4000 m above sea level.

    The P-12 radar took part in the hostilities in Vietnam and the Middle East. It is reported that during the positional war between Egypt and Israel in December 1969, Israeli commandos stole the P-12 radar antenna post from a position in the area of the city of Ras Ghareb.

    At the same time, work was carried out on the transfer of the P-12MP SPOON REST-C station to a new element base and its conjugation with the new system of identifying the nationality of aircraft ("Silicon-2M"). As a result of this modernization, the station received the name of the P-18 radar (Terek, 1RL131) and after tests in 1971 was adopted.

    SPOON REST

     

    Function:

    Target acquisition, early warning

    Range

    Up to 200 km

    275 km

    Frequency

    A versions: A band (VHF)
    B versions: VHF below A band
    Frequency RangeMeter
    HF pulse duration6 ± 1 µs
    Repetition Frequency350 + 5 Hz
    Power per pulseat least 180 kW
    Detection range (“in the forehead”) of a single MiG-17 fighter in a circular view:
    - at a flight altitude of 25,000 mat least 190 km;
    - at a flight altitude of 10,000 m 140 km
    Maximum height ("ceiling")25000 m
    upper boundary of the detection zone by elevation30 °
    Determination of the elevation angle of the target3-14 °
    Accuracy of measurement of coordinates in 80% of measurements
    along an inclined range of -1000 m;
    in azimuth2 °;
    in height800 m
    Resolution:
    in range2 km;
    in azimuth11 °
    Rate of data output
    in azimuth and range 15 s;
    in height30 s.

    Comments

    Power 314kw, BW 6x22.5
    PRF 310-400pps
    PW 4-6us
    Max Alt 32km
    Scan 2-6rpm

    Associated weapon system

    SA-2 GUIDELINE
    FAN SONG fire control radar

    Recognition

  • Six yagi array with bisecting crossbar
  • Mast mounted on 6x6 truck
  • In transit, two truck carry array and generator
  • Variants
  • P-12M "Yenisei-M" put into operation in 1956. In 1959 the P-12M radar was changed to the frequency range by 10 MHz.
  • P-12MP "Sdvig-K" ["Shift-K"], with two-trailer equipment, put into operation in 1959. The P-12MP had a high reliability reducing lateral radiation and made it possible to conjugate to the centimeter radiolocation station and, also with the automated leading complex of Antiaerian Defense formations, "Vozduh-S". In 1970, the new P-12MP radar was introduced: Shrike anti-radar missile protection device, the Noise Amplification Control (SHARU) on the receiver. Conjugation with station P-15 was provided for working on a common indicator of circular observation.
  • P-12MA "Sdvig 2K" ["Sura"], with two-machine equipment (after NATO's "Spoon Rest A"), put into operation in 1960.
  • P-12NA "Irtysh" (NATO classification "Spoon Rest C"). A development of the P-12MA radar on two cars. It was put into operation in 1965.
  • P-12NP "Irtysh" (NATO classification "Spoon Rest B"). A development of the P-12MA radar on two trailers. It was put into operation in 1965.
  • P-12NM "Dessert"
  • P-18 "Terek" 1RL131 (NATO classification "Spoon Rest D"). work was done to move the P-12MP station to a new structure and conjugate it to a new system for the identification of state aircraft ownership ("Kremnii-2M"). As a result of this upgrading, the radar station was called P-18 ("Terek" - 1RL131) and after the 1971 test was admitted into operation.

  • P-12 Radar P-12 Radar





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    Page last modified: 13-09-2021 17:24:29 ZULU