Vladimir Nikolayevich Peregudov
Vladimir Nikolaevich Peregudov was considered the “Tupolev” of Russian shipbuilding. He was the chief designer of the first Soviet nuclear submarine Project 627, work on which was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor. Vladimir Nikolaevich projected the fundamentally new type of submarine boat with a whale nose and form that later becoming traditional for submarines. Peregoudov was also the chief designer of the first Soviet nuclear-powered icebreaker.
The builders of defense technology have a special fate. The poet Robert Rozhdestvenskiy called them "great people without family names." The name of Vladimir Nikolayevich Peregudov was named in the obituary notice that "Krasnaya Zvezda" published on 19 September 1967. Sorrowful lines: "Chief designer retired Engr-Capt 1st Rank Vladimir Nikolayevich Peregudov, Hero of Socialist Labor, died at the age of 66 after a lengthy illness." But even then there was no mention of the fact that Peregudov was among the founders of our nuclear submarine fleet and the chief designer of the first Soviet nuclear submarine.
VN Peregoudov (1902-1967) was born in the village Balakovo, Saratov Province. In the years of civil war Vladimir Nikolaevich joined a komsomol detachment, and on the appeal of komsomol he became the volunteer of Working-peasant Red Fleet. After high school, in June 1921, Komsomol member Peregudov volunteered for the Red Navy. Peregoudov and his friend Sergei Turkov were among 13 young troops of military age on the Komsomol ticket sent to study in Petrograd. Upon arrival, both expressed a desire to serve in the Navy.
Initially he was assigned to "speed-up" accelerated courses for technicians of the fleet command staff but they disband the courses in September 1921 and Peregudov entered the school of the fleet command staff. On 15 October 1922, he transferred to the Navy Engineering School (the future renowned "Dzerzhinka") as a student (the word "kursant" [cadet] appeared in 1926). At that time, it was still not a higher institution and did not have the name of imeni Feliks Edmundovich. Both of the countryman [Peregoudov and Turkov] became listeners, or, as we would say today, cadets Higher Naval Engineering school.
On 10 July 1924, the cruiser "Avrora" and the training ship "Komsomolets" were sent from Kronstadt on the first cruise abroad after the October Revolution. Their course: Kronstadt—Bergen (Norway)—Murmansk— Arkhangelsk—Tronheim (Norway)—Kronstadt. Peregudov stood in formation with his friend from Balakovo Sergei Turkov, with whom he came to Petrograd 3 years before.
Peregudov, a pupil at "Dzerzhinka," a graduate of the Naval Academy and a born mathematician, rather quickly found himself in that environment for which he seems to have been created—in design and research teams. His biography did indeed coincide with the history of the regeneration and establishment of the navy.
The first six-year-old program of shipbuilding was accepted in 1926. Vladimir Peregudov was directed by a senior engineer in the special designer bureau of the Baltic shipbuilding plant located in Leningrad. In passing Vladimir Nikolaevich studied in the Naval academy. For him amities were set with the chief of the special designer bureau on planning of submarine boats of B. M Malinin, saved for life.
He graduated from the school in 1926 and the following year the first Soviet submarines "Dekabrist," "Harodovolets" and "Krasnogvardeyets" were laid in Leningrad at Baltic Plant. When Peregudov finished the academy (after defending his diploma work "Squadron Submarine," he was awarded the title of naval engineer-shipbuilder), the "Dekabrist" went out for trials. Peregudov was made part of the acceptance commission.
Then Peregudov tested the renowned "Shchuki." Peregudov served almost 2 years in the submarine section of the scientific-technical committee of the NTK of the Naval Forces Administration of the Workers and Peasants Red Army. The NTK is the scientific-technical committee of the navy, an important subdivision where much was decided, including what the navy was to be. Here duty brought him in contact with outstanding people who left a noticeable mark in the history of Soviet submarine forces.
While on a mission abroad in 1932, several designers, including Peregudov, took part for a month in the Mediterranean Sea in the testing of the "Ye-1" submarine built by the Spanish using the drawings of the private firm "Deshimag." Soviet engineers liked the "Ye-1." And they signed a contract (a contract!) with "Deshimag" for the development of the engineering plan for a new submarine. But Soviet specialists formulated the program and requirements determining the future of military qualities of the ship. Peregudov made many interesting design decisions. The boat was characterized by many innovations. Initially it was called "Ye-2" but later was given the letter "S," which means "medium" (in displacement). During the Great Patriotic War, the success rate of the "eski" was second to that of Malinin's "shchuki."
In December 1937, he was arrested. At the height of the work on the "eska," the police arrested Turkov. The investigator summoned Peregudov and demanded that he unmask the "enemy of the people and traitor Turkov." He is unbending: "I have known Turkov since I was 11. know him as well as I know myself. He is no enemy. I will not write anything!" Soon they come for Peregudov himself. There is a search. What are they looking for in the house of the peasant son and engineer of the Red Navy Peregudov? His wife Nina Anatolyevna went numb. Their eldest son wakes up. The youngest, just 3 years old, slept peacefully. The neighbors hid in their rooms.
Some report he released by accident after spending a few days in a cell with Rokossovsky, future Marshal of the Soviet Union. In the summer of 1938 he was released with the wording "for lack of guilt." Peregudov did not give the information that they demanded of him and did not harm either himself or others. Maybe that was the reason and maybe it was because the "eska" was very badly needed, but they released Peregudov within a few months.
"A dead man arrived," remembers Nina Anatolyevna, "I even took him out for a walk during the evenings, when there were fewer people on the street." At home it all came out, like a moan: "How they beat me!" The prison, the beatings and the torture thoroughly ruined his health. This is why, when they named Peregudov chief designer of the nuclear submarine, he was already seriously ill [the nature of his illness remains obscure].
At the end of 1938 Vladimir Nikolaevich, remaining in the navy, was assigned to organizations of shipbuilding industry. From 15 January 1941 to 1947 he worked in the Central designer bureau #18, and the main designer of submarine boats of projects 608 and 613. In the war-time Vladimir Nikolaevich together with family were evacuated. There he executed the tasks of war-time. In 1942 he was appointed by the main designer of project 608, that was continuation of submarine boats of middle displacement. Building of ships on a project 608 was not conducted. Submarine boat of project 613 was development of project 608 taking into account experience of the Great Patriotic War.
Prof. Boris Mikhaylovich Malinin, doctor of technical sciences, USSR State Prize winner, was founder of Soviet submarine building, and chief designer of the first Soviet diesel submarines (of types "D," "M" and "Shch"). In 1947, Malinin enlisted Peregudov to work on an atomic submarine. By this time, Peregudov was already seriously ill. As a communist, scientist and officer, however, he could not refuse the offer. Thus, Engr-Capt 1st Rank V. Peregudov was named chief designer of the first nuclear submarine. At the time of his appointment, Peregudov was deputy director of the Shipbuilding Ministry's Central Scientific Research Institute No. 45. Malinin died in 1949.
By 1952 Peregudov was assistant director of research institute NII-45, now known as the Krylov Institute. September 9, 1952 the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a resolution to start work on the first Soviet nuclear submarine. The general management of the program laid on Malyshev, who served as deputy chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers and 1 deputy head of the Main Directorate of the USSR Council of Ministers, who led the development of nuclear technology.
The supervisor of works on creation of the nuclear power plant (NPP) and nuclear submarines was the director of the Academy of Sciences of the Institute of Atomic energy of the USSR Academy, A.P.Aleksandrov. For the direct implementation of elaborations in Moscow in the Research Institute of Chemical Engineering (NIICHIMMASH) there were organized two working groups: one-for design studies of nuclear submarines, the other - for the development of its power plant. The first was headed by deputy director of the CRI-45 V.N.Peregudov, the second - the director of NA Dollezhal NIICHIMMASH.
V.N.Peregudov's group included deputy chief designer of submarines, etc. 611 V.P.Funikov (CDB-18), Head of CDB-18 -. A.V.Bazilevsky and N.V.Anuchin, oversaw the group obscheproektnye questions the general layout of the ship and ship's systems, deputy chief designer of the gas and steam turbine PL pr. 617 V.P.Goryachev (SKB-143), engaged in electrical and electronic equipment SP, Head of SKB-143 P.D.Dektyarev, to deal with the main power plant, and the head of CRI-45 B.K.Razletov - a specialist in the design and strength of the housing.
From February [April by some sources] 1953 Vladimir Nikolaevich Peregudov was appointed the chief designer of 627 submarines, and the chief of the Special designer bureau SKB-143 (now SPMDB "Malachite"), specially created for the design of the first Soviet nuclear submarine. In March 1953 Peregudov completed the primary working of atomic submarine boat. The designer collective had to decide new tasks. Peregudov together with other employees searched other enterprises for experienced personnel.
Creating a ship's propulsion system was performed under the supervision of the Institute of Atomic Energy of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The immediate development of the reactor was led by the newly formed NII-8 Minsredmash headed by NA Dollezhal, in charge of creating the reactor core, the reactor control and protection system of the ship's biological defense. Together with research institutes, KB 48 Boiler Baltic plant imeni Ordzhonikidze worked on the creation of the steam generators (chief designer G.A.Gasanov) and Special Design Bureau of the Leningrad Kirov Plant (LB) - Pump 1st circuit (chief designer N.M.Sinev). Steam turbine plants were developed special design bureau LB (chief designer M.A.Kazak) with the participation of energy specialists SKB-143, headed G.A.Voronichem.
Peregudov huddled, in spite of his position, with his family in a large communal apartment, with seven other families. The separate apartment that was offered to him, he gave to other employees.
Construction of the first nuclear submarine of project 627 (serial number 254) began September 24, 1955 in the shop number 42 in the shipyard number 402 in Molotovsk now Severodvinsk. Despite his illness, Vladimir often visited the shipyard, was involved in mooring trials and trial out to sea, personally checked the correctness of the decisions made, ease of maintenance tools and appliances, the living conditions of submariners. The descent of the ship on the water was produced by 9 August 1957.
Academician A.P. Aleksandrov, three times Hero of Socialist Labor and winner of the Lenin and state prizes of the USSR, said "V.A. Malyshev, deputy chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, introduced us. I liked Peregudov immediately, from our first conversation. I understood that before me was a man of action and aspecialist with profound knowledge. More than that, he delved deeply into the scientific nature of questions that had to be resolved. He seemed to be a designer and scientist all at once. It was easy to work with him, although there was a good deal of arguing. There were enough problems and there was no getting around discussions but Peregudov's profound competence and practical decency could be seen in them, as could an exceptional sense of responsibility."
An event during the mooring tests provided the last point in the coming together of one of the most prominent physicists in the world and the chief designer of the first nuclear submarine, when both were thoroughly imbued with mutual respect. Aleksandrov recalled:
"When they began to put into operation the nuclear plant, some hydraulic pounding was heard in the system. Nothing similar was happening in the experimental system. What was the matter? If the pounding continues, a pipe could break. There was a crowd and a nervous situation on the submarine. Peregudov was there but he was calm and did not ask me about anything. A very responsible comrade comes up and says: 'How can I help, Anatoliy Petrovich?' I say: 'Remove everyone who does not need to be here!'
"And, in a rage, I said exactly where they should go. No problem, he did hot take offense but just waved his hand, saying, in effect, let those leave who have nothing to do. Things quieted down and after 15 or 20 minutes we figured out what was happening. We got the system revved up and with joy everyone watched the turning of the propellors of our first nuclear submarine moored at the pier. Peregudov did not approach me and I greatly appreciated his restraint. He understood that his interference would not contribute anything at that time — the physicists were more competent than he and would more readily understand what needed to be done."
His wife Nina Anatolyevna, sons and daughter were all Peregudovs, even though Vladimir Nikolayevich and Nina Anatolyevna adopted two sons soon after the end of the war. Having adopted two boys, the Peregudovs did not differentiate at all between them and their own children. And they grew up as Peregudovs, proud of their family name and holding its honor high. Almost up to his final years, the chief designer of the first Soviet nuclear submarine, his wife and children lived in a communal apartment for eight families. Peregudov was repeatedly offered a separate apartment but he always relinquished it to one of his colleagues whose situation he considered to be worse.
Peregoudov paid dearly for this job. His disease progressed. He went to sea on tests of the first atomic submarine completely impaired. Vladimir stood on the bridge. Navy Commander Admiral SG Gorshkov told him, "Just look what a miracle you created, look!" The picture was really stunning. Dark water crashed over the whale-like nose. Peregoudov silent, as if stunned. Everyone had seen the man holding the last effort, unlikely to be able to once again go to sea. The Chief Designer survived! The program had been fully implemented.
V.N.Peregudov was seriously ill [the details of his infirmity remain unclear], and in 1958 due to the disease he was released from the post of head of SKB-143. In 1960, he resigned from his post and the chief designer of SKB, but continued to work there until the end of the lead designer's life. The firstborn of Vladimir Nikolaevich "K-3", which then bore the name of "Leninsky Komsomol" had an accident 08 September 1967 that claimed the lives of 39 sailors. Peregoudov died a week and a half later in the 66th year of his life. He died in the Naval Hospital 19 September 1967 as a result of severe and prolonged illness. The most outstanding offspring of the designer greatly survived its creator.
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