Project 627 Kit - November class
The experience of the Great Patriotic War showed that as a result of anti-submarine forces equiped with radar, submarines (PL) can operate effectively only by being submerged. However, they must be able to develop a high underwater speed (up to 20 knots or more), allowing them to occupy a prime position in attacking targets, and evading the prosecution of antisubmarine ships.
Given the limited potential (due to unsustainable growth in weight and size characteristics) electric power systems, traditionally used for submarines course, designers began to search the submarine work on the use of new types of engines. In the early postwar years, the leading naval powers followed German work during the War and, with German experience and specialists conducted experiments with gas and steam turbine plants (PSTU), working in the concentrated hydrogen peroxide (engine Walter). However, a lack of operational reliability PSTU, significant consumption of hydrogen peroxide at high speeds and, therefore, limited energy resources of the engine determined the preference for the use of innovative power plants - nuclear (NPP).
Being independent of the ambient air, nuclear power with limited weight and size with significant aggregate capacity could ensure the movement of the submarine submerged at high speeds for a long time. No other type of power plants for submarines had these qualities.
The nuclear boat would be a true submarine and not a diving ship. A nuclear reactor does not need air to work and it provides great capacities unattainable by diesel engines and an abundance of power. Its range will be limited not by the supply of fuel but of food and by the physical possibilities of people to remain in the enclosed space of the rigid hull. Greater power means unheard-of speeds under water. And since it will not be necessary for the boat to come to the surface on long cruises, it will be extremely difficult to detect it in the ocean. There were the extraordinary difficulties in building a qualitatively new ship. A more rigid hull will be required for greater operating depths. Space will have to be found in this hull for a nuclear reactor while providing for the dependable protection of people. For the first time, steam will be driven under water, that is, a steam turbine with all its numerous and voluminous attributes. The turbine will sharply increase the noisiness of the submarine and this cannot be allowed. The US program to create a nuclear-powered submarines (NPS) developed in December 1945, and the next year working to implement it went rapidly. In January 1948 the Department of Defense requested the Atomic Energy Commission to design, develop and build a nuclear reactor which would propel a submarine. On 14 June 1952, in the shipyard Electric Boat Division in Groton (CT) laid the world's first nuclear submarine "Nautilus". In September 1955, nine years after the beginning of the work, it became part of the US Navy.
In 1945, the US developed nuclear weapons. President Truman said: "Today, the U.S. is the most powerful country in the world, and we must use our this power responsibly to safeguard peace." In answer, Joseph Stalin strengthened his grip on the Socialist block and developed nuclear weapons of his own. At the time, U.S. bombers were positioned at European military base. But the political situation was so unstable, they could have been asked to leave at any moment. As a result, the U.S. placed its emphasis on developing their navy. In December 1945, Moscow learned the U.S. was creating submarines with nuclear capability.
The issue on the development of nuclear power plants for submarines was considered for the first time at the meeting of the First Main Directorate (PGU) under the USSR Council of Ministers on 24 March 1947. It was due to reports in press about the possibility of using atomic energy on American submarines.
Reaserch (purely theoretical) on the study appearance nuclear submarine began in the USSR in 1949, when they were first achieved real results in the creation of the Soviet nuclear weapons and for four years worked as a research nuclear reactor. In 1950, these studies were informed confidentially by some fleet commanders (in particular, the commander of the Northern Fleet, which is primarily planned introduction of new technology).
Academician I. Kurchatov, Corresponding Member of USSR Academy of Sciences, and Professor N. Dollezhal wrote a memorandum to the government about the need for creation of atomic submarines, supported by practical calculations. Their proposal was supported by the Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Malyshev.
The decision to start the design of a nuclear submarine in the Russian Union was adopted in the early 1950s. Stalin, on 12 September [September 9 ??] 1952, signed a decree "On the design and construction of the object 627" (code of the first nuclear submarine). The first-born Russian nuclear shipbuilding took place in an atmosphere of deep secrecy.
A. Aleksandrov was appointed the scientific leader of the works for developing the nuclear submarine, V. Peregudov, the father of the Soviet nuclear submarines, was appointed the chief designer and the Director of Scientific and Research Institute N8. Dollezhal was appointed the chief designer of the nuclear power plant.
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