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Project 627 Kit - November - Design

For the creation of the first nuclear submarine, in 1959 a number of scientists and engineers, led by Alexander Alexandrov, were awarded with the Lenin Prize. That same year, the entire crew was awarded with state awards, and the first commander of the submarine - L. Osipenko was granted the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.

The first two units [K-3 & K-14 ] were built to the Project 627 design, with subsequent units built to the more combat-capable Project 627A specification. Unlike the first two submarines, these were fully combat capable, equipped with the combat system of the Project 641 Foxtrot class diesel-electric attack submarines.

The first Soviet nuclear-powered ship was supposed to have double-hulled architecture with extremely high aspect ratio and cross section is nearly circular. Two-shaft power plant would achieve maximum underwater speed of at least 25 knots. By some accounts the maximum speed was 30 knots under water, 15.5 knots on the surface. K-3 Lenin Komsomol submarine traveled at 23.3 knots while running at 60 percent of its capacity. "Nautilus" only hit 20 knots at full speed. Maximum submergence submarine "627 Kit" compared with the then domestic and foreign diesel-electric submarines increased in half (to 300 m).

The bow the ship was the cause of many discussions. In diesel submarines, the hull contours (especially the bow end) ensure the best seaworthiness in a surface position to the detriment of these qualities under water. But a nuclear submarine can stay under water for a very very long time. This means that it is necessary to optimize the bow end for underwater navigation.

The bow end of the "Leninskiy Komsomol" with its whalelike form was optimum precisely in the underwater position. To some extent, chief designer Vladimir Nikolayevich Peregudov thereby renounced surface seaworthiness. He said that it is necessary to build a ship whose qualities would approach those of a torpedo. And this is what he sought, demanding that the hull and operations room enclosure be "licked smooth" and that everything be removed that interferes with the complete streamlining of the submarine. Thanks to the efficient lines the whales outmatched considerably the American Nautilus in subsurface speed.

Since the traditional forms had been violated, difficulties immediately arose in extremely important matters involving the intended use of the submarine. How, for example, should the torpedo tubes be arranged?

The steel hull was divided into nine compartments: 1 Torpedo room and accommodations 2 Accumulator, accommodations and mess; 3 Control room; 4 Auxiliary machinery and diesel generator; 5 Reactor compartment; 6 Turbine compartment; 7 Electro-technical and control center for reactor; 8 Auxiliary equipment; 9 Steering system, accommodations.

The Submarines were designed for special low-noise controllable pitch propellers (CPP). The Reactor compartment was equipped for biological protection, ensuring radiation safety of the crew. There were two diesel-DC DW-400 (with diesel M-820). Auxiliary propulsion motors provided motion at speeds up to 8 knots. To improve the acoustic stealth of the boat, lightweight vibrodemp hull coatings were used (for the first time in the world).

Given the measures taken, the level of noise of the first Soviet nuclear submarine was claimed to be significantly superior to their American counterparts. Boat equipped with sonar weaponry which is based on sonar (ASG) MG-200 "Arktika-M" operating mode noise - and ehopelengova of. Station antenna located in front of a fence cutting. Furthermore, there were sonar detection sonar signals and sonar communication "Light", shumopelengatornaya station "Mars-16KP" sonar and underwater obstacles detection station "Ray." Radar equipment included radar detection of surface targets and torpedo fire control "Prism" and radar reconnaissance station "freewheeling".

Project 627 was armed with quite sophisticated for its time, means of communication, navigation surveillance, most of which has already been tested on diesel submarines pf pr. 611 and 613. Radio communication means used were similar to projects 611 and 613.

Composition navigator armament was supplemented by the navigation system "Pluton", providing weapons, navigation and use when navigating between 80 north and south latitudes. Hydroacoustic equipment accounted for sonar (SAS) "Arctic", designed to detect targets and determine their coordinates. "Mars-16KP" CEO detection sonar signals and sound-conducting connection, "light" and sonar submarine detection station obstacles "Ray."

As part of the radar equipment included two stations - the detection of surface targets and control fire torpedo "Prism" and detection radar station operating "Roll forward". Radio communication allowed conduct receiving radio messages transmitted from coastal command posts (BCP), including in the long range in shallow waters, as well as two-way communication in the range of long and short waves in the OPF, ships and naval aircraft. Sailing Boat and use weapons provided specially designed automated navigation system "Pluto", able to operate at sailing submarine within 80 degrees north and south latitude.

Given the significant increase in travel speed submarines in the traffic control system, it was decided to apply automation. Automatic control of the course was carried out with the help of a stabilizer "Course" and in depth - stabilizer "Boom", a well-established, especially in the management of the ship at high speeds.

The design of submarine included a set of measures to ensure acoustic stealth; it used machines with improved characteristics vibrotion management; basic equipment included vibration-absorbing coating and low-noise propellers. However, such solutionscould not be created for the main turbine. As a result, the noise underwater of 627 submarines while moving average speed was the same as that of the diesel-electric submarines pr. 611 and 613 when driving the main motor. At higher speeds, noise increased significantly.

Torpedoes were completely housed in the bow of the boat. It included eight 533-mm tubes with 20 torpedoes total ammunition SET-65 or 53-65K. For the first time in a Soviet submarine it was possible to torpedo firing at depths up to 100 m dive. The submarine could use all existing types of torpedoes. Developing data-fire for them was made automatically by the system "thorium".

The boat was armed with eight 533-mm torpedo tubes in the bow. The ammunition could include 20 torpedoes of all caliber types available at that time, including "special" (nuclear) ones. Usually, the submarine on combat patrol had 4-6 nuclear torpedoes.

The Project 627A submarine had a submerged displacement of 4750 tons, surface displacement - 3065 tons. It had two pressurized type VM-A water reactors with a thermal capacity of 70 MW. Endurance was 50 days.One serious complication was the insufficient duration of reactor core operations. By the end of the sea trials the submarine "K-3" active zone of its reactors were almost fully exhausted and required replacement. Within 3 - 4 years, nuclear physicists would increase the campaign zones of the VM-A reactors.

These first generation submarines were not initially intended to hunt for enemy submarines: their noise was too great, and their hydroacoustic equipment had relatively low performance. Therefore, contacts with US nuclear submarines were usually short-lived, and long-term tracking failed. At the same time it should be noted that the American fleet, placing the mid-1960s specialized low-noise anti-submarines of the Permit class, also failed to ensure regular monitoring of the nuclear-powered Soviet rocket launching submarines of the 1st generation, which had a relatively high noise level.

In 1968, a Soviet November class nuclear submarine surprised the US Navy by keeping pace with a high-speed [31-knot] task force led by the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Enterprise. The next year, responding to the "November surprise", the US Navy initiated development of the new "Los Angeles class of fast attack boats.

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