Parades - November 7th
The Great October Revolution that occurred on October 25, 1917, using the Julian calendar. Once the modern Gregorian Calendar was adopted by Soviet Russia, this holiday maintained its name but was moved forward to November 7.
On November 7, 1941, when the battle for Moscow was in full swing, when the situation under the capital was still extremely heavy, and the front was only a few dozen kilometers from besieged Moscow, a military parade was held on Red Square in honor of the 24th anniversary of the October revolution. In 1941, the Great October Revolution parade occurred as the Battle of Moscow was being fought a few miles away. Soldiers who participated in the parade were actually marching to the front via Red Square.
On Red Square in Moscow, a traditional parade of the Soviet Army took place, at which Stalin spoke with a speech delivered from the rostrum of the Mausoleum. The parade to raise the morale of the army and the whole country, as well as psychological impact on the enemy was a powerful step!
The 50th anniversary of the October Revolution was held on July 9, 1967 at Domedovo. By that time, the USSR had several sensitive political defeats in the international arena, including a six-day warin the Middle East, which ended in a complete rout of the Arabs equipped with Soviet weapons. The Soviet Union had to urgently correct the situation by presenting the world with something unique.
On the flight deck was a historical exposition, which included most significant items of domestic aviation. The greatest interest was caused by experimental military equipment. OKB A.I.Mikoyan showed eight new products. Among them were the ultra-high-speed MiG-25 aircraft, and a short takeoff "23-01", a fighter with variable geometry wings "23-11" (MiG-23). Such a model was demonstrated by OKB P.O.Sukhoi - the S-22I (Su-17). Special interest was caused by a sample of OKB A.S.Yakovleva. The Yak-36 was a prototype of the first Soviet aircraft with vertical take-off and landing Yak-38.
The number of participants and military equipment constantly increased. The problem was only that the narrow Voskresensky Gate of China-city limited the travel of combat vehicles. In 1931, these gates were finally demolished, and the monument to Minin and Pozharsky blocking the passage was moved to the Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed.
The tradition of extraordinary military parades was clearly visible in the 1930s. Memorial parade February 9, 1934, timed to the XVII Congress of the party, struck its scale. Forty-two thousand servicemen participated in it, of which twenty-one thousand were infantrymen, and one thousand seven hundred horsemen. On that day, five hundred and twenty-five tanks marched through the central square of the country, and the parade lasted more than three hours! The review showed that over the five-year period the technical equipment of the Red Army increased many times, turning it into a formidable, well-prepared force, which was noted by foreign diplomats and correspondents present.
On November 7, Soviet people marked, undoubtedly, the main holiday of the Soviet Union - the Day of the Great October Socialist Revolution. The ideological basis was simple - it celebrated the birthday of a new state of workers and peasants. And of course, every schoolboy knew why the Day of the October Revolution was celebrated in early November. Citizens of the Land of Soviets relied on this occasion for two days off: on November 7 and 8: the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR decided in 1927, in honor of the first decade of the revolution.
November 7, 1918 in Moscow on Red Square was a solemn passage of troops in honor of the first anniversary of the October Revolution of 1917. After that, military parades on the anniversary of October were held regularly. In pre-war peace years, in commemoration of the anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution, the main state holiday of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, solemn events were held in Moscow, the main event of which was always the military parade on Red Square.
A distinctive feature of the parade on November 7, 1927 was the fact that it was accepted by a civilian, chairman of the Central Executive Committee, Mikhail Kalinin, although the head of the Military Revolutionary Council Voroshilov was in charge of the parade. On this festive procession there were no armored cars and tanks, as the situation in the country was heated to the limit. Stalin, who was on secondaries, feared a military coup, since Trotsky's authority in the troops was still quite high.
In response to the beginning of the militarization of Germany and the changing political situation in Europe in 1935, Stalin decides to demonstrate the full might of the Soviet military forces. Five hundred tanks participated in the May Day parade, eight hundred aircraft flew into the air, the flagship of which was the eight-kilometer Maxim Gorky, accompanied by two fighters. After them, bombers flew in several tiers, literally covering the sky above the square with their wings. One of the most memorable was the parade in 1941, which took place during the Great Patriotic War. At this time, the Nazi troops were 50-100 km from the capital, the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army led heavy defensive battles. The capital of the USSR was in a state of siege, some of the population was evacuated. The German command was preparing an operation to capture Moscow.
Preparations for the parade were conducted in strict secrecy at the behest of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief Joseph Stalin. On November 6, at the Mayakovskaya metro station, after a meeting devoted to the 24th anniversary of the October Revolution, Stalin announced to members of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), the secretaries of the Moscow regional and city party committees about the time of the November 7 parade on Red Square. Up until late at night on November 6, the commanders and the personnel of the selected units did not know that they were to participate in the parade. By the morning of November 7, on Red Square, the stars on the Kremlin towers were uncovered and lit, the disguise from Lenin's mausoleum was removed. The parade began at 08:00 Moscow time.
The parade, in which 28,500 servicemen and representatives of the people's militia participated, lasted 25 minutes. Right from the square many of its participants went to the front. The November parade of 1941 in commemoration of the 24th anniversary of the revolution lasted less than half an hour, but played an important role in strengthening the morale when the Nazi troops stood 30 kilometers from Moscow.
The military parade aroused admiration and respect for the Soviet people and its army, helped to strengthen the international prestige of the USSR. The English newspaper "News Chronicle" wrote: "The organization of an ordinary traditional parade in Moscow at a time when hot fights are on the outskirts of the city, is a magnificent example of courage and courage." She was echoed by the Daily Mail: "Stalin organized on the famous Red Square one of the most brilliant demonstrations of courage and confidence, as was the case during the war."
This parade was a visible manifestation of traditional Russian patriotism, based on the solidarity of all sectors of society in the fight against the aggressor, on the awareness of the just nature of the war in which the fate of the country and its people is being decided.
The Germans had already planned a parade of Wehrmacht regiments on Red Square. But the long-awaited triumphal procession did not happen. Courage and will to win the defenders of the capital broke the spirit and fighting efficiency of the German troops.
The next military parade on November 7 took place in Moscow in 1945. Since then, parades have been held annually until 1991. On November 7, 1953, the USSR Minister of Defense, Marshal of the Soviet Union Nikolai Bulganin, for the first time, went to take the parade not on horseback, but on a new open car ZIS-110B. At the parade in 1957 intercontinental ballistic missiles were first shown. The last Soviet military parade with the participation of military equipment on November 7 took place in 1990.
The last parade of Soviet power on Red Square was held on November 7, 1990, when the head of state Mikhail Sergeyevich, like Stalin, delivered a speech from the rostrum of the Mausoleum. However, his appeal to the people was full of trivialities and hackneyed phrases. Shortly thereafter, the USSR collapsed, followed by the division and division of the army's property.
Since 1991, parades on Red Square have not been held. On this day in the center of the capital there were marches organized by the movements "Labor Moscow", "United Front of Workers", CPRF, etc., in which veterans took part. Since 1992, in Russia, November 8 became a working day. Since 1996, instead of the Anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution, it has been decided to celebrate the Day of Accord and Reconciliation.
On November 7, 2000, the first solemn march of veterans of the November 1941 parade took place on Red Square. Later such marches were held annually. They also involved pupils of Suvorov and Cadet schools, members of youth military-patriotic organizations and search groups.
And in 2005, a new holiday appears in the Russian calendar - the Day of National Unity, which is celebrated on November 4, and the 7th also ceased to be a day off. January 1, 2005 . The Federation Council on November 7 was approved as a state holiday - "The Day of the military parade on Red Square in Moscow in commemoration of the twenty-fourth anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution (1941)".
In 2006, on the 65th anniversary of the October Revolution, a reconstruction of the historic parade of 1941 was organized on Red Square. Servicemen of the Moscow Military District took part in it - about 4 thousand people. Veterans first watched the action from the rostrum. Such historical parades began to be held annually.
In 2009, for the first time in modern Russia, T-34 tanks passed through Red Square. Since 2010, GAZ-67, GAZ-AA ("polutorka"), ZIS-33 and ZIS-42, GAZ-M1 (Emka) cars have been involved in the historical reconstruction, since 2011 the BA-64 armored car, tanks T-37, T-60, rocket artillery systems BM-13 Katyusha, anti-aircraft guns, and others.
In 2015, on the Red Square, before the 5.5 thousand guests of the solemn march, among which there were 21 veteran participants of the 1941 parade, servicemen marched in the form of a model of the 1940s, pupils of Suvorov schools and cadets; future diplomats, translators and military pilots. Historically, military equipment, in particular, the T-34 tank, passed through the cobbles of the square. More than 2 thousand activists of the children's movement from the administrative districts of Moscow lined up in the word "Victory". Teenagers in red suits were holding photographs of those who had not returned from the war.
A solemn march, dedicated to the 76th anniversary of the legendary parade of 1941, was held in Red Square of Moscow on the day of the 100th anniversary of the October Revolution. On 07 November 2017 at 3 pm, on the day of the 100th anniversary of the October Revolution, a joint demonstration of the left forces began in Moscow on Pushkin Square under the slogan "1917-2017. We remember. We are proud. We will repeat".
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