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NKTankprom / Ministry of Tank Industry
NKTankProm / People's Commissariat of the Tank Industry

Commissar of Medium Machine Building 1939 1940 Ivan Likhachev
Commissar for Heavy Machinery 05 February 193917 April 1940 Vyacheslav Malyshev
Commissar of heavy machinery April 17, 1940 June 5 1941 Alexander Illarionovich Efremov
Commissar of medium machine building October 2, 1940 17 February 1946 Stepan H. Akopov
Ministry of Tank Industry (NKTP) 11 Sept 194114 July 1942Vyacheslav Malyshev
Ministry of Tank Industry (NKTP) 14 July 1942 June 28, 1943Isaak Moiseevich Salzman
Ministry of Tank Industry (NKTP)
People's Commissar of tank industry
June 28, 1943October 14, 1945Vyacheslav Malyshev
Commissar of Transport Engineering14 Oct 1945 15 March 1946 Vyacheslav Malyshev
Ministry of Transport Engineering 19 March 1946 29 December 1947 Vyacheslav Malyshev
Minister of transport engineering 29 December 1947 10 January 1950 Ivan Isidorovich Nosenko
Minister of transport engineering 10 January 1950 5 March 1953 Yury Maksarev,
Ministry of Armaments 19461953Dmitry Ustinov
Ministry of Transport and Heavy Machinery 03 March 1953 29 June 1953Vyacheslav Malyshev
Ministry of Transport Engineering29 June 195319 April 1954Ivan Isidorovich Nosenko
Ministry of Transport Engineering19541957Semyon Skachkov
Ministry of Defense Industry 19541957Dmitry Ustinov
First Deputy Chairman of the State Economic Commission December 25, 1956 February 20, 1957Post abolished

People's Commissariat of Tank Industry was established September 11, 1941 on the basis of people's Commissariat of Medium Machinebuilding [a name later applied to the agency managing the nuclear weapons program] in connection with large losses of tanks in the Great Patriotic War. Such people's commissariats existed at the time and in other areas of military industries, for example, in the field of aviation, and the Commissariat was arranged in a similar way. Commissariat was placed in Chelyabinsk. The first Commissar was V.A.Malyshev, in July 1942, he was succeeded by M.Saltzman.

The Commissariat became one of the largest industrial people's Commissariat of the USSR. Its membership included a number of major industrial giants employing more than 10,000 people. Only the years of war in these enterprises worked 200-250,000 people.

The composition of the Commissariat were incorporated enterprises, already have taken in 1930s experience of manufacture of tanks: in Kharkov plant No. 183 producing medium tanks T-34, and T-75, diesel engines for tanks; in Leningrad-Kirov plant, producing heavy kV-1 tanks and plant No. 174 (t-26 light tanks); in Moscow factory No. 37 (light amphibious tanks t-40) and Mariupol heavy machine building plant them. Ilyich iron and steel works, producing T-34 chassis at Zavod IM. Ordzhonikidze, one of which was the production of hulls for the T-40.

Since the beginning of September 1941 onwards most of these factories was already under threat of capture by the Germans, in the composition of the Commissariat also includes businesses that are located in the eastern regions of the USSR. Evacuees tank factories "met": Chelyabinsk tractor plant took kirovsky zavod, Ural wagon works posted on their squares plant No. 183, Ural turbine plant motor shop of the Kirov plant, Ural plant of heavy machinery-Izhora factory and yurginsky machine engineering plant plant No. 75. In addition, the Commissariat entered Stalingrad tractor factory, has commenced production of t-34, no. 264 in Stalingrad, production of hulls for VS, and no. 112 (krasnoye sormovo) also reoriented to manufacture t-34 tanks.

In addition, the Commissariat entered factories, not originally involved in the production of tanks. By the end of 1941 year process of formation of the Commissariat was completed.

In the first phase, the main task of the Commissariat was a sharp increase in the volume of production of tanks. In an order dated December 9, 1941 Goda Commissar of tank industry V.A.Malyshev challenged the Director of the plant No. 183 E.Y.Maksarvym task "introduce factory agricultural technology. In a short period of time in factories Commissariat were introduced mass production technologies, in particular the conveyor Assembly tanks, more productive specialized machines (semiautomatic, mnogorezcovye, revolving, etc), implemented the transition from ductile to molding details, as well as mastered method of academician e. o. Paton on automatic welding of shells.

As a result, during 1942 year greatly reduced the complexity of manufacturing the t-34. So, at the plant No. 183 it decreased by 22%, and at plant No. 112 40%.

Great importance for the growth of production of tanks also had changes in their design. However, simplification of design and technological process has led to a decrease in the reliability, so in the summer of 1942 onwards, the main efforts were diverted to the Commissariat designers simplifying production technologies to increase reliability. In June 1942 the year this change trends was voiced by Stalin:

"Our tanks are superior to foreign, including German, its technical performance, but inferior to them in the undercarriage. It should be borne in mind that the Trooper now less qualified and therefore tanks to do easier, safer, and virtuosos don't count on ... New tanks do not yet. One should not distract from the task of designers to improve and modernize tanks produced. The new machines will return after a month-and-a-half, when designers will finish work on the improvement of existing tanks.' Diary of V.A.Malyshev

The activities of the Commissariat in the initial period of war (1941-1942) determined subsequent successful work of Soviet tank, which in quantitative terms substantially outstripped tank industry in Germany and occupied countries. So, in the USSR in 1942 year was 24504 tanks and Self-Propelled Guns, and in Germany only 6189; in 1943, 24006 (10.7 thousand in Germany), in 1944 year-28983 (18.3 thousand in Germany), in the first half of the year 1945-15422 (in Germany only 4.4 thous.)

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Page last modified: 21-02-2016 20:06:11 ZULU