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MiG-19 FARMER - Development

As early as June 1950 Josef Stalin told the heads of Russias aircraft industry that he wanted a twin-engined fighter that could be manufactured both as a radar-equipped all-weather interceptor and as a supersonic tactical fighter. Clearly, he was well ahead of Robert S. McNamaras 1960s ideas of commonality in the USA.

Strictly speaking, reaching supersonic speeds was the task of the precursor of the fighter - the MiG-17, which put into service in 1951. It accelerated to 1.15 M, doing this "light", that is, without ammunition and with incomplete fuel tanks. In these conditions it was transonic. This situation did not satisfy the command of the Air Force, as the MiG-17 was originally planned to be used in parts of the air defense. However, NATO countries had already planned to acquire supersonic spy planes. And a real rebuff to give them was also capable of supersonic aircraft.

Experiments with the prototypes took away a lot of time with the designers. The development of much-needed air defense troops interceptor began in 1950. The specific and tough task ahead of OKB-155 was to create a supersonic interceptor, able to fight at a speed greater than 1.5 Mach. On April 20 1951, OKB-155 was given the order to develop the MiG-17 into a new fighter called "I-340", which was to be powered by two Mikulin AM-5 non-afterburning jet engines (a scaled-down version of the Mikulin AM-3) with 4,410 lbf (19.6 kN) of thrust.

The I-340 was supposed to attain 725 mph (1,160 km/h; Mach 0.97) at 6,560 ft (2,000 m), 675 mph (1,080 km/h; Mach 1.0) at 33,000 ft (10,000 m), climb to 33,000 ft (10,000 m) in 2.9 minutes, and have a service ceiling of no less than 55,000 ft (17,500 m).

The new fighter, internally designated SM-1", was designed around the "SI-02" airframe (a MiG-17 prototype). The experimental two-engine MiG-17 - CM-1, created exclusively for working in the flight conditions of the new, compact engines AM-5 construction A. Mikulina, it soon equipped the all-weather loitering interceptor Yak-25.

They took the MiG-17 and instead of a single turbojet engine with a thrust of 2,700 kg, they used two AM-5 engines with a thrust of 2,000 kg each in a side-by-side arrangement. Soon, the AM-5A with a thrust of 2150 kg, became available.

However, all this did not given the planned result. The aircraft was completed in March 1952. The aircraft suffered from poor cockpit pressurization and the engines proved temperamental with frequent flameouts and surges with rapid throttle movements. Then it turned out that the stabilizer is mounted at the top of the keel, at high speeds, it operates inefficiently. The situation changed for the better after the regulator moved to the fuselage. The engines were upgraded to the AM-5A standard with 4,740 lbf (21.1 kN) of thrust each, which exceeded the power output of the Klimov VK-1F in afterburner while providing better fuel economy.

The SM-1 was barely supersonic. Due to both an increase in the weight of the machine and mediocre aerodynamics of the airframe, at supersonic speeds test pilot G. A.Sedov was able to squeeze out of the plane only 745 mph (1,193 km/h) at 16,400 ft (5,000 m) Mach 1.03. This performance was deemed insufficient for the new supersonic fighter and an afterburning version of the engine, the AM-5F, was proposed. While not implemented, the AM-5F served as the basis for the Tumansky RD-9 which powered production aircraft.

Further development of the twin-engine concept resulted in a government request for the I-360", internally designated SM-2", which was also powered by the AM-5F engines, but featured a highly swept wing. Mikoyan saw that an increase in wing sweep had made his MiG-17 faster than the MiG-15, so he opted for a 55-degree sweep in the SM-2 prototype that was to pioneer Soviet supersonic flight. The aircraft was barely supersonic. It also exhibited severe stability problems.

Then it was decided to seriously address the airframe. A new wing with greater sweep was used in the second prototype - the SM-2. It also had a replacement of new engines - AM-5F with afterburner. In normal use, this created the same thrust as the AM-5A, and afterburner - 2700 kgs. But this option is not given the desired results. The second prototype fell significantly short of the 1.5 M.

The SM-2 was followed by the SM-9/1, which featured a fuselage-mounted tailplane, two afterburning AM-9B engines and three NR-23 cannon. The advent of more powerful engines AM-9 and RD-9B, equipped with an afterburner, forced the designers to alter fundamentally the tail of the aircraft.

It became clear that it was not the same aircraft at the end of 1952, when they passed the test of the second prototype. And OKB-155 received an order to create a new prototype, without waiting for the testing of SM-2.

On August 15 1953, the Mikoyan-Gurevich OKB was given a new order to create a frontline fighter. The OKB was asked to create two designs a single-engined version with the Klimov VK-7 and a twin-engine version with Mikulin AM-9Fs. The twin-engine fighter, internally designated "SM-9" but also assigned the production name MiG-19 was based on the earlier SM-2 prototype.

At this point, the designers worked not on a whim, and were firmly convinced that in any case should not be a change in the airframe. And in a new prototype, SM-9, only slightly changed the vertical tail. At the rear of the fuselage set a container with a braking parachute 15 sq.m. On each side of the fuselage has two brake flaps that deviate by 50 degrees.

The main difference was the replacement of engines with the AM-9F created in EDO AA Mikulin specifically for this machine. Subsequently, they were successfully used in the Yak-27 and other aircraft supersonic 60s. This engine was so successful that it was issued on the Rybinsk and Ufa Engine Plant until 1975. After some time, the engine was renamed RD-9B. The AM-9F had afterburner. In normal mode, he created the thrust of 2600 kgf in afterburner - 3250 kg.

On its first flight on January 5, 1954, the first airframe with test pilot GA Sedov, "SM-9/1" exhibited vastly improved handling over the SM-2, and it was soon making regular supersonic flights. The afterburner did not light in the first flight, but in the second flight the aircraft reached Mach 1.25 at 26,400 ft (8,050 m). This was improved to Mach 1.44 in subsequent flights.

On SM-9, known as the MiG-19, trials demonstrated full compliance with the requirements of the TOR, and was recommended for serial production. interceptor, fighter, reconnaissance and target. Based on this promising performance, the MiG-19 was ordered into production on February 17 1954, even though government acceptance trials did not start until September of that year. The first production aircraft rolled off the assembly line in March of 1955.

During testing of the MiG-19 it was discovered that at supersonic speeds there was a noticeable deterioration in control of the aircraft. It turned out that the reason for this was the traditional scheme of the horizontal tail, usually consisting of two parts - a fixed stabilizer and a further, steering, tilt up and down. Once the fighter exceeded the speed of sound, it practically ceased to create an aerodynamic effect, raises or lowers the tail of the aircraft. The yield was one - to abandon the usual circuit, entrusting the role of steering around the stabilizer. And the supersonic MiG-19 became obedient to the will of the pilot.

But this deteriorated control of the aircraft at subsonic speeds. The fighter became too sensitive to any deviation of the stabilizer, and even for a small change in the trajectory the pilot had to make almost a microscopic adjustment. But in flight, the more so when fighting, the pilot had to drive almost reflexively, especially without hesitation, how to act at a given speed rudders.

The remedy was provided by A. Minaev, later a prominent aviation and historian of aviation. His suggestion was to create an automated system designed to change the speed and altitude, and depending on it to change the angle of deflection of the stabilizer. Thus was born the MiG-19C, which initiated numerous family of serial production and experimental fighters.

The all-weather interceptor MiG-19P was equipped with radar that can detect airborne targets at a distance and in any weather, and then direct "air-air" missiles. In order to establish a relatively small fighter radar, engineers had to lengthen the nose portion, giving it different contours. Another feature of the MiG-19P was that instead of wing installations guns it had launchers for rockets.

After the MiG-19P prototype appeared CM-10, equipped with a system of refueling in the air, and SM-20. This was flown by twice Hero of the Soviet Union, Amet-Khan Sultan, who in the postwar years was a test pilot. This modification of the "nineteenth" could be joined in the flight with a heavy bomber. In this case, a fighter, "saving" their own fuel, can fly at a considerable distance.

A new step to the high velocities designers managed to make the type SM-12 aircraft equipped with an air inlet with a sharp "lip" - the so-called edge technology inlet. It is on the CM-12 test pilots have reached the speed 1720 km / h and a height of 17 thousand meters.

Noteworthy and work on equipping the MiG-19 accelerators. So, under the fuselage of high-altitude interceptor SM-50 established an additional liquid-jet engine design by AM Isaev, by which the pilots managed to develop a speed of 1800 km / h and up to 24 thousand meters.

Especially for the launch without an airfield the SM-30 aircraft was developed, taking off from a ramp, which is usually aoemthing a tractor can deliver anywhere. At take-off thrust multiplied fighter engine thrust accelerator powder discharged after the plane turned out to be in the air. Eleven times a test pilot. Hero of the Soviet Union, GM Shiyanov such an unusual way to raise the SM-30 in the sky.

Creating a series of modifications of the MiG-19 would not be possible without the selfless work of aircraft, test pilots, engineers, technicians. They also worked on the "nineteenth" as a kind of university course which allowed going to the famed MiG-21 with a delta wing, which developed the speed, almost twice exceeding the speed of sound.




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Page last modified: 21-02-2016 20:06:24 ZULU