Russian Maritime Doctrine
During the 20th Century Moscow's naval doctrine oscilated between a focus on coastal defense, with a very large fleet of rather small vessels [a mosquito fleet], and a blue water high seas fleet with a much smaller number of major combatants. The high seas fleet was in the ascendancy from the middle of the century, and seems to have returned post-2010. Forward deployments of the Russian Navy are a highly visible means of asserting that "the bear is back".
The presence of a strong fleet will allow Russia to occupy the leading positions in the world in the 21st century, declared in the Fundamentals of State Policy in the Russian Federation in the field of naval activities for the period until 2030. The document, approved by the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin, was published on the official portal of legal information 20 July 2017.
Russia considers the US aspiration to dominate the World Ocean as a threat to its national security. This thesis is contained in the fundamentals of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the field of naval activities for the period until 2030, the decree on approval of which was signed by Russian President Vladimir Putin. "There are existing and emerging new threats and threats to the national security of the Russian Federation in the World Ocean, the main of which are: the desire of a number of states, primarily the United States of America (USA) and their allies, to dominate the World Ocean, including the Arctic, As well as to achieve the overwhelming superiority of its naval forces, "the document, published on the official portal of legal information, said.
Other threats to Russia's security include "the presence of territorial claims of foreign states to the Russian Federation with respect to coastal territories and adjacent water areas, an increase in the number of states that have combat-capable, powerful naval forces, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missile technologies, the desire of a number of states to limit Access of the Russian Federation to the resources of the World Ocean and its access to vital marine transport communications, economic, political, International legal and military pressure on the Russian Federation to reduce the effectiveness of its maritime activities in the World Ocean, and weaken its control over the Northern Sea Route - the historically established national transport communication of the Russian Federation. "
"In the period until 2030, the world is predicting an unstable military and political situation, characterized by increased global competition, rivalry of world power centers, instability of political and economic processes taking place against the backdrop of the deterioration of international relations and the activation of transnational terrorist groups," the State Policy notes.
The need for naval presence of the Russian Federation in strategically important and other areas of the World Ocean in the document is determined on the basis of several dangers. Among them are "the growing desire of a number of states to own sources of hydrocarbon resources in the Middle East, the Arctic and the Caspian Sea basin, the negative impact on the international situation of the situation in the Syrian Arab Republic, the Republic of Iraq, the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, conflicts in the Near and Middle East, In a number of countries in South Asia and Africa, the possibility of exacerbating existing and the emergence of new interstate conflicts in any area of the world's oceans. " Moscow is also concerned about "the growth of pirate activity in the Gulf of Guinea, as well as in the waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
"The Russian Federation still maintains the status of a great naval power whose maritime potential ensures the implementation and protection of its national interests in any region of the world's oceans, is an important factor in international stability and strategic deterrence and allows the conduct of an independent national maritime policy as an equal participant in international maritime activities ", - emphasized in the Fundamentals of state policy.
The document explains that "naval activities are an integral part (kind) of the military activities of the state carried out in the World Ocean in order to prevent aggression against the Russian Federation and to realize its national interests, and belongs to the category of higher state priorities."
Putin approved the Fundamentals of State Policy in the field of naval activities until 2030. The Fundamentals of State Policy provides indicators of the effectiveness of measures to implement state policy in the field of naval activities. Among them is "the level of the Navy's equipping with modern weapons, military and special equipment, providing it with the second place in the world in terms of combat capabilities, the ability to damage the enemy's fleet at a level not lower than the critical one with the use of non-strategic nuclear weapons, the ability of the fleet to be used in any situation Naval strategic nuclear forces, the ability to build up a naval grouping on a dangerous strategic direction through inter-theater maneuver by the forces of the fleets, the ability of the bodies The Federal Security Service to promptly respond to changes in the situation in the exclusive economic zone and on the continental shelf of the Russian Federation. "
"The tendencies of the development of the modern geopolitical situation in the world convincingly confirm that only the presence of a strong Navy will provide the Russian Federation with leading positions in a multipolar world in the 21st century, will allow it to effectively implement and protect its national interests," the document says. It notes that "Russia, being a great sea and land power, must take into account all aspects of the geopolitical processes taking place in the World Ocean, in the coastal territories and in the adjacent water areas."
Among the activities for the implementation of the Fundamentals are the organization of a system monitoring and analysis of the implementation of the state policy in the field of naval activities, the improvement of the international legal and regulatory framework that provides favorable conditions for the protection of the national interests of the Russian Federation and its allies in the World Ocean, the development of system- Industrial complex of the Russian Federation, specialized branches of science and technology, organization and conduct of scientific research In the field of naval activities. "
"The main indicators of the state of national security in the field of naval activity are the composition, status and capabilities of the Navy, which ensure the military security of the Russian Federation from ocean and sea directions, as well as protect the national interests of the Russian Federation in the World Ocean," the document states. .
Russia will also strive to consolidate the Navy in the second place in the world in terms of combat capabilities. "The Russian Federation will not allow the significant superiority of the naval forces of other states over the Navy and will strive to secure it in the second place in the world in terms of combat capabilities," states the Fundamentals of State Policy.
The document says that in peacetime and in the immediate threat of aggression the Navy should be able to prevent force and aggression against the Russian Federation and its allies from the ocean and sea directions and also deploy forces and troops in remote areas World ocean. The Navy should be able to ensure a stable, secretive and continuous control of forces (troops) in real time when they are in any areas of the World Ocean.
In wartime, the fleet must be capable of inflicting unacceptable damage to the enemy in order to force him to cease military operations on the conditions of guaranteed assurance of Russia's national interests. The fleet must wage a successful confrontation with an adversary who possesses high-tech naval capabilities, including high-precision weapons, armed with naval forces in near, far sea zones and ocean areas.
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