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Russian Maritime Doctrine - 2015

Moscow introduced a new naval doctrine 26 July 2015. The Arctic, the Atlantic and Crimea as well as cooperation with China in the Pacific are now among the most important interests of Russia. According to the document, Crimea, the Arctic and the Atlantic and as well as cooperation between Russia and China in the Pacific are becoming main priorities for Russia. Russia has been gradually expanding its military and economic presence in the mineral-rich region for many years. Moscow is interested in the oil and gas reserves that are said to lie in the depths of the Arctic ice. Russia is also planning to build a fleet of nuclear-powered icebreakers. According to Russian Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, the first new icebreaker will be launched in 2017.

The document was drafted in 2014 and approved by Russian President Vladimir Putin. The new naval doctrine has become Russia's response to the conflict with the West. The fundamental principles of the document are based on the military doctrine, which Russia adopted in December 2014. The conflict in Ukraine and NATO's eastward expansion were indicated as major "threats to Russia's security," the magazine recalled. The new naval doctrine also reflects the reunification of Crimea with Russia. Moreover, the document stresses the importance of friendly relations between Russia and China and their cooperation in the Pacific region. As stated by Russian Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, the new naval strategy will help the Kremlin create an effective counterbalance to US hegemony in the world, the magazine wrote.

Russian Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin said that the reasons for the adoption of the new maritime doctrine were changes in the international political situation and the objective strengthening of Russia as a great naval power. Russias new maritime doctrine will lay the legal foundation for maritime activities, Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin said 26 July 2015 We expect work to roll out in the near future to draft legislation on public administration of maritime activity on the basis of the maritime doctrine, Rogozin said.

Russia's Maritime Doctrine was adopted by Russian President Vladimir Putin. "The president announced today that he approved the Maritime Doctrine," Rogozin said. According to the deputy prime minister, the amendments to the doctrine are the result of the changes in the political situation in the world. "The reasons for the adoption of the new doctrine are changes in the international political situation and the objective strengthening of Russia as a great naval power," Rogozin said He added that the new law will coordinate and consolidate works between the Russian federal governments Marine Board and local maritime councils. The newly amended version of the doctrine calls for the "provision of sufficient Russian naval presence in the Atlantic Ocean."

On Navy Day, 26 July 2015, at the main base of the Baltic Fleet, aboard the frigate Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Gorshkov, Russian President Vladimir Putin approved a new version of the Russian Naval Doctrine. The Naval Doctrine of the Russian Federation, adopted in 2001, was designed for the future until 2020. What was the point of editing a government strategy that has not served its time? For 14 years, Russia had significantly strengthened as a maritime power and is confidently increasing its presence in the World Ocean. At the same time, the international situation has changed, local and regional conflicts are multiplying, which affect the interests of many countries.

The document was developed jointly by the Navy, the Marine Collegium under the Government of the Russian Federation, fifteen federal executive bodies and organizations. The updated 46-page Maritime Doctrine is the basis for the development of the draft law on the state management of maritime activities.

Russia's new 45-page naval doctrine, approved by Vladimir Putin on 27 July 2015, identifies functional and regional areas to serve as a backbone to Russias strategic planning in an evolving international landscape, as the country asserted its position as a global naval power. The doctrine reiterated Moscows longstanding opposition to the North Atlantic Treaty Organizations (NATO) military advance toward Russia's borders, something the document terms a "determining factor" in their relations.

It outlined four functional and six regional areas, comprising the Atlantic and the Arctic (named as key regions), as well as the Pacific, the Caspian Sea, the Indian Ocean and Antarctica. One of the most interesting things about the new Russian naval doctrine was its huge expanse. It's an enormous amount of sater that the Russian Navy now expected to cover. As part of the strategic framework, the doctrine called for the improvement of the Black Sea Fleet and its infrastructure in Crimea and coastal Krasnodar Territory.

The instruments of maritime policy are surface ships and submarines capable of operating autonomously or as part of formations thousands of miles from their bases. In 2014, the Russian Navy truly returned to the oceans . From January 2014 to March 2015 alone, the intensity of submarine deployments to combat service increased by 50% compared to 2013. The combat service of nuclear submarines in various regions of the World Ocean increases the security guarantees of the Russian Federation. Until 2016, the Black Sea Fleet will be replenished with six new diesel-electric submarines of Project 636.3. In parallel, the Black Sea residents will receive six new patrol ships of Project 1135.6. The capabilities of the permanent operational formation of the Russian Navy in the Mediterranean are growing - in the Atlantic direction.

The active development of the North Atlantic Alliance, the approach of its infrastructure and combat units to the borders of Russia explains the emphasis on the Atlantic direction. The doctrine stresses the unacceptability of NATO's further eastward expansion. The Arctic is a free outlet for Russia to the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, the Northern Sea Route and the resources of the continental shelf. And yet, the updated Maritime Doctrine of Russia cannot be called North Atlantic, because the strategy is broader and more diverse. The document emphasizes the importance of a sufficient and permanent naval presence of the Russian Federation in the Mediterranean Sea in the Atlantic direction, close cooperation with China and India in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

All six previously mentioned regional areas are equipped with common strategic approaches and development algorithms, the tasks of the Navy and the merchant fleet, science and extractive industries are systematized. The goals of Russia are integration into the world economy and further development of the national economy using the opportunities and resources of the World Ocean, strengthening the position of the Russian Federation on the basis of mutually beneficial cooperation with all countries.

According to the updated doctrine, the Navy is the basis of Russia's naval potential, and naval activities are classified as the highest state priorities. The document reads: "the operational-strategic formations of the Navy - the Northern, Pacific, Baltic, Black Sea Fleets, as well as the Caspian Flotilla - are the force basis for solving the tasks of the national maritime policy in the corresponding regional directions." Independent shipbuilding made its first appearance in the new Maritime Doctrine as part of Russias national marine policy. It called for long-term technological independence in the fields of shipbuilding and naval equipment in accordance with the state armament program. A new section has appeared in the Naval Doctrine: shipbuilding and shipbuilding. For 10 years, Russia has restored a military shipbuilding commensurate with the Soviet period, and is returning to the World Ocean with a qualitatively new fleet.

Shipbuilding in the interests of the civilian fleet is still lagging behind. In this area, the state is stimulating growth through successful private shipbuilding companies, and strategic planning will help to catch up faster. The doctrine sets a high bar for domestic shipbuilding - full and technologically independent satisfaction of the needs of the state and entrepreneurs, including the preservation of world leadership in the construction of nuclear icebreakers.

The long-term, for the period up to 2050, the shipbuilding program provides for the intensive creation of the required type range of the Navy for multifunctional surface ships, strategic and multipurpose submarines of new generations. In 2015 alone, about 50 ships will be built for the Russian Navy. Including four frigates of projects 22350 and 11356, two multipurpose corvettes of project 20380, a large landing ship of project 11711, several small missile ships of project 21631, a mine defense ship of project 12700.

"The determining factor in relations with NATO remains the alliances unacceptable to Russia plans to advance its military infrastructure to [Russian] borders," the doctrine reads. In the Black and Azov seas, the bases of national maritime policy are the accelerated recovery and comprehensive strengthening of Russias strategic positions, [as well as] the maintenance of peace and stability in the region, according to the doctrine. The regional section of Russias national maritime policy calls for ensuring sufficient naval presence of the Russian Federation in the [Mediterranean] region on a permanent basis. As part of the strategic framework, the doctrine also calls for the improvement of the Black Sea Fleet and its infrastructure in Crimea and coastal Krasnodar Territory.

Russias national marine policy calls for long-term technological independence in the fields of shipbuilding and naval equipment in accordance with the state armament program. Rogozin linked the new shipbuilding section to the growth of this industry in Russia over the past 10-15 years on a par with the Soviet era. Russia has been pressing ahead with efforts to develop its Arctic territories, including hydrocarbon production and development of the Northern Sea Route, which is gaining importance as an alternative to traditional routes from Europe to Asia. The country has also boosted its military presence in the area. Dmitry Rogozin said in April 2015 that Russia was going to invest 222 billion rubles ($4.3 billion) in its Arctic development program in 2015-2020.

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Page last modified: 13-09-2021 17:24:17 ZULU