Kaliningrad, Kaliningradskaia oblast
[Koenigsberg, East Prussia, Germany]
The Russian exclave of Kaliningrad is a geopolitical trophy carved out of the pre-war German territory of East Prussia. Sandwiched between Lithuania and Poland, Kaliningrad [formerly German-ruled East Prussia, also called Lithuania Minor] is a small piece of Russia — about half the size of Rhode Island — on the Baltic Sea.
After the collapse of the USSR, the Kaliningrad region became an exclave region of Russia. They turned the German city into the average Samara, Voronezh or Kursk. The entry of the region into the Baltic region has a significant impact on the political, economic and sociocultural dynamics. Strengthening global transnational and transcultural flows contributes not only to an increase in the military-strategic and foreign economic importance of the region. Its close proximity to Europe, favorable climatic conditions, and belonging to the Baltic Growth Belt makes it the most dynamically developing macro-region of modern Europe.
Territory closed to foreigners is a territory with a regulated regime of visits for foreign citizens (marked with a red line on the map). Border zone is a strip along the border of a state or territory where free movement of people is limited (marked with a green line on the map).
Travel to open cities, towns and districts of the Kaliningrad Region is permitted by transit via the Kaliningrad- Ryabinovka- Zelenogradsk- Svetlogorsk railway or by road along the Kaliningrad- Pereslavskoye- Dubrovka- Svetlogorsk highway; Kaliningrad - Orlovka - Murom - Zelenogradsk. Travel on the territory of pools No. 3 and 4 of the Baltic Naval Base is permitted to be carried out in transit via the Kaliningrad-Baltiysk railway or by road along the Kaliningrad-Baltiysk highway and then either along Lenin, Serebrovskaya, Nizhny Highway of Baltiysk, or by road the road "Access to the cargo and passenger car ferry terminal in Baltiysk." By agreement concluded between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Poland, citizens of the Republic of Poland, if there is a permit for local cross-border movement, they have the right to enter the territory of the Kaliningrad region in accordance with the rules of this agreement.
Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin ( November 7 , 1875 - June 3, 1946 ) - Russian revolutionary, Soviet state and party leader [unrelated to Konstantin Alekseevich Kalinin, the outstanding Soviet aircraft designer and pilot]. In 1919, L. D. Trotsky called him the “All-Russian elder,” after 1935 they began to call him the “All-Union elder”, also the “Worker and Peasant President” and simply “Grandfather Kalinin,” since from 1919 to the year his death, Kalinin served as head of state.
In October 1938, his wife, Ekaterina Ivanovna Loorbberg, was arrested under the anti-terrorism law, signed by Kalinin himself after the assassination of Kirov. She was released only in June 1945 a year before the death of the "All-Union Warden" at his personal humiliated request to Stalin. March 19, 1946 at the I session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of the 2nd convocation was relieved of his duties as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and was elected a member of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR. Kalinin died June 3, 1946 from colon cancer.
Kalinin's death coincided with a political decision on renaming of cities and towns in the (then) Koenigsberg area - the former East Prussia . On July 6, 1946, the city of Königsberg and the region of the same name were renamed in honor of the “ All-Union Warden, ” although the cities of Kalinin (now Tver ), Kaliningrad (now Korolev ), Kalininabad (now Sarband ), and the village of Kalininets near Moscow Kalininaul and other settlements. In 1938, the village of Berezovaya Zavod became a working village named after M.I. Kalinin.
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