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1933-1938 - 2nd Five-Year Plan - Aviation

Starting in 1932 the development of the second five-year plan for military production, the Defense Sector of the USSR State Planning Committee had a firm intention not to repeat the mistakes made in the first five-year plan. Improving the efficiency of production and the quality of the military defense industry continued to remain the main task of the manufacturing plants and its customer, the People's Commissariat of Defense of the USSR.

In the years of the second five-year plan, the capacity of the aviation industry continued to grow. In 1937, there were 57 aircraft factories in the country, which employed 249.1 thousand workers and office workers. The production areas of the Soviet aircraft factories by January 1, 1937 increased to 1,293 thousand square meters. meters 23 thousand metal-cutting machines {160} were installed on them.

To meet the growing needs of the Soviet aviation industry for special structural materials from aluminum and its alloys, a corresponding metallurgical base was created. In 1933, the construction of plant No. 95 for the production of pipes, sheets, bars, profiles and dies from aluminum alloys was completed near Moscow (Kuntsevo). In 1937, construction began on a similar plant in Stupino (plant number 150).

The world's largest research institutes of aircraft construction (TsAGI) and aviation engine building (CIAM) have reached the world level in the development of designs of aircraft of various types. Excellent for that time, flight and combat characteristics had: fighters I-15 and I-16, a twin-engine speed bomber SB, a long-range bomber TB-7, and others.

The activities of most of the research and design military-industrial institutions would be more fruitful if not for the numerous bottlenecks caused by deficiencies in the organization of production, delays in capital construction and the introduction of cost-effective technological processes products. The elimination of these shortcomings was facilitated by the study and application of advanced foreign experience.

In his report to the Commission on Defense of the United States Aviation Industry, dated September 13, 1936, for example, the head of the UMTS RKKA, IP Belov, drew attention to the fact that American aircraft factories were switching to methods of organizing mass production flow over three decades in the American auto industry Freed from labor-intensive machine-mechanical works, Americans widely use stamping of various sheet metal parts, press riveters to carry out the assembly, various welding methods, make anodic coating for aluminum alloy parts, which greatly increases their durability.

In the conclusion of his report, Belov wrote: The organization of production, technological process and mechanization at the Soviet aircraft factories (the most powerful in the world!) Significantly lags behind the modern advanced aircraft. As a result of this, there is already a dangerous gap between the ability to design a plane well and it is very bad and long to produce it.

In the 1930s, the research, design and production base of the industry was strengthened on a broad front. The Central Institute of Aviation Motors and the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Materials were established. The Tupolev Design Bureau worked fruitfully, where the TB-3, SB, TB-7, ANT-25 and ANT-37 bombers were created. In this design bureau, the activities of Arkhangelsky A.A., Myasishchev V.M., Petlyakov V.M., Putilov A.I., Sukhoi P.0 began. and other aircraft designers. In 1936, the Tupolev Design Bureau with a plant of experimental structures emerged from TsAGI, forming experimental plant No. 156.

The Central Design Bureau of the All-Union Aviation Association became another major design organization. In August 1931, the TsKB subordinated TsAGI, where it was headed by S.V.Ilyushin, but since 1933 it again began to be based on plant No. 39 and specialized mainly in the development of aircraft of lighter classes. N.N.Polikarpov, A.S.Yakovlev, G.M.Beriev, S.A.Kocherigin, V.A.Chizhevsky, V.P.Yatsenko and other aircraft designers created such famous airplanes as the I-15 and I-16 fighters, the MBR-2 seaplane, the DB-3 bomber, etc.

In the development of earlier decisions on the construction and reconstruction of enterprises of the aviation industry in the 1930s, Aircraft plants in Gorky, Voronezh (No. 18), Irkutsk, Novosibirsk, Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Kazan (No. 124), aircraft engine factories in Perm, Voronezh (No. 16), Kazan (No. 27) were put into operation. Among the new buildings were aggregate and instrument aircraft factories. Many enterprises were created on the basis of aircraft repair shops, factories and enterprises of a different profile. Thus, aircraft-building plants were established in Arsenyev (Primorsky Krai), Smolensk, Saratov, Dolgoprudny and Khimki (No. 301), Leningrad (No. 47 and No. 387). A number of aviation organizations were under the jurisdiction of the Civil Air Fleet. In 1936, the civil aircraft building factories of the Civil Air Fleet began to be transferred to the system of aviation industry enterprises.




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Page last modified: 04-11-2018 17:41:29 ZULU