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Ilyushin Design Bureau - Post War History

Designing of a passenger airplanes began during the last years of the war and its aim was creation of mass civil airplane. The Il-12 was a passenger aircraft with two piston engines. This airplane gave rise to a new orientation in the DB activity, and in the scale of the state- to mass air transportation. In 1946 the Aeroflot Company began to use the IL-12. In this time the first domestic airplane for the mass passenger operations has appeared in the Soviet Union. By its characteristics, this airplane exceeded the US DS-3 aircraft that was widely used at that time. At the same time, ILYUSHIN produced the IL-12 military-transport version.

The Il-14 is a passenger airplane with two piston engines. In 1950 using the IL-12 aircraft operating experience the ILYUSHIN team produced the IL-14 airplane that had better flight characteristics and higher passengers comfort level. This airplane was manufactured in 14 versions and it was mass manufactured not only in the Soviet Union but in Czechoslovakia and the German Democratic Republic as well. This airplane design merits, its excellent flight and technical-and-economic features were verified and confirmed with its large-scale and continuous service within scientific expeditions to the North and South Poles and its trouble-free operation in various climatic and weather conditions.

The Il-18 is a medium range passenger airplane with four turbojets, one of the first soviet airplane with gas turbine engines. The Il-62 is along-range passenger airplane with four jet engines. The Il-62M is an updated modification of the Il-62. The Il-86 is a wide-body passenger airplane with four turbojet engines. The Il-114 is a passenger airplane with two turboprop engines. The Il-114 is also designed for operation in Arctic and Antarctic.

The fourth branch of the DB's activity - development of transport (cargo) airplanes-started with the Il-12D, dropping airplane and transport Il-12T and Il-14T, which are modifications of passenger Il-12 and Il-14 versions. In 1949 the DB created the first cargo glider-the Il-32 with payload of 7 tons. The Il-76 a transport airplane and its cargo modification the Il-76T with four turbojet engines are destined for long- and medium-range cargo transportation. Most of the Il airplanes were built in mass series.

During the post-war years, the ILYUSHIN team developed the IL-22 four-engine bomber jet aircraft that began its test flights in 1947. This aircraft really became the first jet aircraft of its class in the USSR. The IL-22 aircraft test results and development experience allowed the ILYUSHIN team to build up in a short time the IL-28 first jet front-line bomber. The IL-28 possessed excellent flight performances and the piloting technique simplicity. For the first time during the aircraft development the designers used the new manufacturing method worked out by S.V. Ilyushin. This method ensures the aircraft high-precision outlines (particularly, the wing contour), high quality riveting and labor costs decrease. The IL-28 was manufactured in several versions within various modifications.

The ILYUSHIN team continued with the experimental development works for the front line bomber jet aircraft improvement in order to enhance its speed characteristics, flying range and striking power, and during 1949-1954 they designed the IL-46 experimental subsonic bomber aircraft and IL-54 bomber aircraft of unique design with a 55 swept wing, pylon-hanged engines and bicycle landing gear.

In 1946, the Experimental Design Bureau developed the IL-18 aircraft equipped with the piston engines to carry 66 passengers but this aircraft was not put into mass production. When domestic turbo-propeller engines became available, in 1956 the ILYUSHIN team initiated works for the four-engine turboprop passenger airplane development. As a result the IL-18 was built up, and during the 1957-1970 period this airplane was the mass production item. This airplane entered into service with the Aeroflot airlines in April 1959 as a 75-seat version and later on - as a 100-seat version. Based on the IL-18 airplane, several special purpose versions of the airplane were built up. By virtue of its excellent flight and operation performances, the airplane gained wide acceptance both in the Soviet Union and many foreign countries as well. More than 120 airplanes were delivered to 17 countries all over the world.

On 17 December 1956 the Council of Ministers of the USSR, adopted a resolution that conferred the Chief Designer title to S.V. Ilyushin and charged him with a duty of Executive Director at Plant No.240 of The Ministry of Aviation Industry (MAI).

In the mid-1960s domestic airlines began to receive the second-generation turbojet airplanes. These airplanes differed from the previous generation airplanes with the higher speed and enhanced comfort for the passengers. The IL-62 designed by the ILYUSHIN team really represented the aircraft of this generation. The IL-62 entered the international airlines at once and on September 15, 1967, it opened the transatlantic route - "Moscow-Montreal". In order to increase the IL-62 airplane flight range, the ILYUSHIN team built up its IL-62M modified version. These airplanes by their technical data are at the same level with the best foreign intercontinental airliners of the same generation.

On April 30, 1966, the Ministry of Aviation Industry of the USSR issued the Order No.175 and thus approved a public name of the experimental plant - the Moscow machine-building plant "Strela" (Arrow).

On March 25, 1971, the first IL-76 cargo aircraft took off. This aircraft was developed by the designers' team led and directed by Henry Vasilievich Novozhilov - the Chief Designer appointed to a post of the Director of the Experimental Design Bureau of the Moscow machine-building plant "Strela" under the Order No.378/k issued by the Minister of Aviation Industry of the USSR on July 28, 1970. For the first time in the worldwide practice the IL-76 heavy cargo jet aircraft was specially developed in order to operate from short both concrete, as well as unpaved runways. The main feature of the aircraft is not only its ability to carry the oversized cargo and various equipment with more than 40 tons of weight but significant reduction of the aircraft loading/unloading time by virtue of the loading/unloading equipment installed in the aircraft cargo compartment and use of containers and pallets made according to the international and national standards as well. On December 1977, the aircraft entered into service with the Aeroflot International Airlines. The IL-76 became popular in the Soviet air-transport aviation and it met any requirements towards aircraft of this type. The IL-76 achieved twenty-seven load-carrying capacity and flying speed world records. The ILYUSHIN team continued its work on improvement of the IL-76. As a result they developed the IL-76M, IL-76T, IL-76MD and IL-76TD aircraft and put them into mass production. Besides, they completed all preparations required for the IL-76?F and IL-76?F aircraft production. These IL-76 modifications obtained the increased load capacity and flight range.

On 18 April 1977, according to the resolution No.228-16 issued by the Council of Ministers of the USSR, the Moscow Machine-Building Plant "Strela" was renamed The Moscow Machine-Building Plant n/a Sergey Vladimirovich Ilyushin. During 1974-1988 A.V. Shaposhnikov headed the plant.

During the 1970s the ILYUSHIN team developed the IL-86 - a first Soviet wide-body airplane for 350 passengers. The aircraft was successfully built up and appropriately certified. From December 1980 the IL-86 are operated on the national and international routes. Compared with the other airplanes, the IL-86 ensures the significant reduction of operational costs and considerable fuel economy. By virtue of its design features and particularly a principle of "luggage carried with passengers plus containers", three entrance doors with the built-in stairs and special landing gear. The IL-86 entered the regular operation without previous expensive reconstruction of the existing airports and their runways, initially designed for landing of lighter aircraft.

During the first half of the 1970s and concurrently with the development of the IL-86, the Experimental Design Bureau n/a S.V. Ilyushin began the project-research works on the wide-body long-range passenger airliner. At the very beginning, in order to achieve the target, the designers intended to modify the IL-86. However, the constantly growing needs for reduction of the passenger-kilometer operational cost, increase of the payload and passenger capacity with simultaneous increase of the flight range, as well as saving the fuel expenses, finally made the designers to build up a fundamentally new airplane - the IL-96-300. During the development of the IL-96-300 the designers worked out the entirely new project design decisions aimed at the improvement of the airplane aerodynamic perfection, the decrease of its weight and the achievement of its operational and maintenance simplicity. The IL-96-300 became a new flag-aircraft in the Soviet civil air fleet. "????-96000" was the first IL-96-300 airplane number. On September 28, 1988 S.G. Bliznyuk, a crew captain performed a maiden flight of this airplane from the Central aerodrome named after M.V. Frunze in Moscow.

At the beginning of the 1980s the Experimental Design Bureau n/a S.V. Ilyushin evaluated the future of the passenger aircraft and studied more than 30-years of operational experience of utilization of the IL-14 aircraft and its various modifications. Finally, the experts proposed to develop a new passenger airplane for the domestic airlines. The Ministry of Aviation of the USSR approved this proposal, and in spite of the works led by the ILYUSHIN team on the IL-96-300 airplane, development of the IL-114 airplane was launched. The main purpose of the airplane, the mass manufacturing of which started in 1992, was the transportation of passengers with their luggage and cargoes at the domestic routes with heavy passenger traffic flows and at some long-haul routes with low passenger traffic flows. The IL-114 can be operated from the relatively small airfields with either concrete or unpaved runways, and that contributed to the expansion of the operational geography of the utilization of this airplane.

On December 24, 1991, the "Moscow Machine-Building Plant n/a S.V. Ilyushin" was renamed to the "Aviation complex n/a S.V. Ilyushin" under the Order No.4 of the Department of Aviation Industry.




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Page last modified: 23-07-2014 18:08:36 ZULU