Boris Pavlovich Beshchev
Boris Beshchev was a whole epoch. Boris Pavlovich Beshchev was Minister of Railways of the USSR in 1948-1977. Among the 38 ministers (commissars) of the railways, who at various times led the railways during the 130 years of the existence of the Ministry (People's Commissariat), the special place belongs to Boris Pavlovitch Beshchev. The point is not only that he was Minister for almost 29 years (from June 5, 1948 to January 14, 1977), almost a quarter of the time of the existence of the Ministry of Railways. No less important is the fact that it is precisely for these years that the unusually intense work of the first post-war years, connected with the restoration of the barbarously destroyed railway transport, as well as the most important scientific, technical, organizational and economic events that transformed the railways of the largest power like the USSR, in the most powerful transport system.
Beshchev is the first professional railroad engineer among the Soviet ministers (commissars) of railways, who has extensive experience working on railways (including the head of Ordzhonikidzevskaya, Kuibyshev and Oktyabrskaya roads), and also and in the apparatus of the ministry (head of the department, deputy and first deputy minister of transport). Before him, in the USSR ministers (people's commissars) were appointed party and state workers who had no special education or practical experience in transport, and in the years of the Great Patriotic War, on the basis of operational situation, military specialists, such as A. V. Khrulev and I. V. Kovalev.
Boris Pavlovich Beshchev was born July 16, 1903 in the village of Velikoye Yaroslavl province in the family of a working textile factory. Early on his parents died, and he was brought up in the family of his elder brother, with whom in 1919 he moved to the Volga region. There he enrolled as a pupil of a telegraph operator at the Batraki station of the Samara-Zlatoust Railway (now Oktyabrsk of the Kuibyshev road) and in the same year joined the Komsomol. After two years of work in the Syzran Uyezd Committee of the Komsomol (1921-1922), he again worked as a telegraph operator at the Batraki station (1923-1924), and then moved to elective work (along the line of pre-training) first by the chairman of the railway club of Batraki station, and then - Syzran node. At the same time, without taking his time off from production, he studies at the courses of preparation for the institute. Upon completion of the courses, BP Beshchev in 1930 was sent to study at the Leningrad Institute of Railway Transport Engineers, who graduated in 1935 with an excellent mark on the specialty of railway communications engineer for the operation of railways.
In 1935 he graduated from the Leningrad Institute of Railways. In the years 1937-1940. He worked as the head of Ordzhonikidzevskaya, and then the Oktyabrskaya railway. When the Great Patriotic War broke out, Beshchev was in Leningrad. The Germans were eager for the city. Every day enemy aircraft attacked the communication routes. In these conditions, in the rank of a special commissioner of the NKPS, he was engaged in the organization of military transport, evacuation of valuable equipment from the city. Only two months before the ring of the enemy blockade closed, it seemed that the unthinkable was done: 740,000 people were taken from Leningrad, more than 90 industrial enterprises.
During the Great Patriotic War, he headed the Department of Roads in the north-west direction, was an authorized representative of the People's Commissariat of Railways of the Leningrad Front. In 1944 he was appointed Deputy People's Commissar of Communications - Head of the NKPS Movement Department. The whole network obeyed his orders. In the spring of 1945, during the preparation of the Berlin operation, 40,000 wagons with military cargoes were delivered to the front for 20 days. And in the summer of 1945 the secret transfer of Soviet troops to the Far East for the war with Japan was brilliantly carried out.
Beshchev was appointed on June 5, 1948, and held the post of minister for 30 years, until 1977. Thanks to his perseverance and determination, a radical reconstruction of the country's railway communication was carried out. He took the industry in a difficult condition: the roads had not yet recovered from military disruption, the rolling stock was lacking, and the road required major repairs. Nevertheless, the freight turnover of railways reached the pre-war level, and by 1950 it increased by another 45%. An elaborate plan was developed to transfer the railways to new types of traction - diesel and electric. This reduced the cost of transportation by almost a third. A major reorganization was also carried out: instead of 56 railways, 26 major highways appeared. As a result, their management improved, the speed of delivery of goods increased.
Of particular note is the practice introduced by BP Veschev to hold extended sessions of the Collegium of the Ministry of Railways. To participate in their work, except, as was usual, the members of the Collegium and senior officials of the Main Committees of the Ministry of Railways (and in some cases to consider specific issues on a particular road and their leaders), the chiefs of all railways were invited. Often, responsible workers of the State Planning Committee of the USSR, the Council of Ministers of the USSR and other departments also took part in the work. These meetings first considered particularly important technical and economic issues or fundamentally new problems.
As a rule, all of his deputies, members of the College, chiefs of commanders and railways worked for many years, often decades, or were promoted to more responsible posts. Exemption from occupied positions as a measure of punishment was applied in rare cases and was caused only by a number of extraordinary circumstances. As a result of this attitude toward the cadres - collegiality in work and trusting relations (but without any familiarity) between the members of the College and the heads of the commanders. Despite the thorough knowledge of the transport industry and its real capabilities, BP Beshchev usually avoided hasty individual decisions.
Having ascertained the opinions of specialists, assessing all aspects and possible consequences of the issue under consideration, the minister made decisions that met not the private interests of this or that branch, but the national needs, showing, in necessary cases, principledness, perseverance and will.
Beshchev headed the Ministry of Railways for almost threre decades, longer than anyone else. He remained at his post and with IV. Stalin, and with NS. Khrushchev, and with L.I. Brezhnev. Only in 1977, when he was already seriously ill, he left the ministry and retired, retaining his membership in the Central Committee.
Boris Pavlovich died in May 1981. He had state awards: 7 Orders of Lenin, 2 Orders of the October Revolution, the Order of the Red Banner of Labor. Hero of Socialist Labor. The name of B.P. Beshchev was given to the Yaroslavl Electric Repair Plant. On the building of the Velikoselskaya school in his honor there is a memorial plaque. Since 2003 in with. Great held regional children's football tournament of his memory.
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