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Railroads - 1974-1989 Baykal-Amur Main Line

The BAM (Baykalo-Amurskaya Magistral'--Baykal- Amur Main Line) is a second trans-Siberian railroad, running 100 to 500 kilometers north of the original Trans-Siberian Railway and extending 3,145 kilometers from the western terminus at Ust'-Kut to the eastern terminus at Komsomol'sk-na- Amure. Opened in 1989, the BAM was designed and built to relieve traffic on the Trans-Siberian Railway, lessen rail traffic's vulnerability to Chinese military incursion, and facilitate transport of natural resources from huge, unexploited deposits in eastern Siberia.

The vast Siberian region between Lake Baykal and the lower Amur River, called the Transbaykal (or Zabaykaliye), is rich in natural and mineral resources. Yet until recently, it lacked adequate transportation to the rest of the country. Its main communication artery was the overburdened Trans-Siberian Railway, running well south of it. Although providing the Transbaykal region with a railroad was considered in the nineteenth century, work on the Baykal-Amur Main Line (Baykalo-Amurskaya Magistral'-- BAM) did not begin until 1974. The BAM was finally opened in 1989.

Survey and construction crews overcame formidable geological, climatic, topographic, and engineering challenges, including rivers, ground ice, unstable soil, seismic areas, mountains, and extremes of cold and heat. About two-thirds of the BAM trackage crossed areas of ground ice that caused frost heave and other unstable soil conditions. In the summer, permafrost created large bogs that hampered roadbed construction, and embankments sank into the marshy terrain during the summer thaw. To prevent such problems, engineers insulated the strip of marsh along the tracks to keep it in a continuously frozen state. Seismic activity along some 1,000 kilometers of the line also caused problems, triggering avalanches and landslides. Topographic obstacles were formidable as well. To cross the mountains, crews had to pierce over thirty kilometers of tunnels. The BAM also crossed more than 3,000 streams, and because of the permafrost new bridge construction techniques had to be devised. On average, the roadbed for the BAM required moving 100,000 cubic meters of earth--either cutting or filling--for each kilometer of track.

The mean annual temperature along the BAM ranges from -10C to -4C, with extremes of -58C in the winter to 36C in the summer. To operate their trains under these severe climatic conditions, the railroads used special equipment, locomotives, rolling stock, and fixed installations. Snow plows, snow-melting machines, switch heaters, and other specialized equipment were indispensable in the winter. Rails made of special steel that does not become brittle at the very low temperatures of the Arctic and Siberian winters were also used. From its western terminus at Ust'-Kut to its eastern end at Komsomol'sk-na-Amure, the BAM stretched for 3,145 kilometers, between 180 and 300 kilometers north of the Trans-Siberian Railway. It had a total of 5,000 kilometers of main line and yard track. In addition to the east-west main line, a 402-kilometer perpendicular line, the "Little BAM," ran from Bamovskaya on the Trans-Siberian Railway north to Tynda on the BAM and thence to Berkakit to serve the important mining and industrial area of Neryungri. In the late 1980s, an extension to the Yakutiya region, rich in timber and minerals, was under way.

The BAM and its feeder routes, both rail and highway, served an area of approximately 1.2 million square kilometers. Although track laying was completed in 1986, it was not yet in full operation in 1989. The projected freight traffic on the BAM was planned at 35 million tons per year, with trains of up to 9,000 tons. Moreover, the government planned for the BAM to become an important part of the Siberian land bridge from Japan, via the port of Sovetskaya Gavan', to West European destinations, saving 20 percent in time over the maritime route.

During the reconstruction of the Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM) on the Ulak-Fevralsk section, 19 objects must be completed in three and a half years. This was announced on 03 August 2021 at a conference call by Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu. "In three and a half years, 19 objects are planned to be commissioned. Two will be commissioned next year, 12 in 2023 and five in 2024," Shoigu said.

He recalled that in accordance with the instructions of the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin, last week the Railway Troops began the reconstruction of the Baikal-Amur Mainline on the Ulak-Fevralsk section with a total length of 340 km. "In addition to the fact that the railway is a strategic object, this particular section is of great importance for the country's economy as a whole. Using the full potential of the northeastern branch will increase the transport capabilities of Eastern Siberia, the throughput of the main line and the volume of transit traffic. Russia will also be able to expand the output to the markets of the countries of the Asia-Pacific region, "the minister said.

He stressed that the military railway workers have a large scope of work, however, comfortable conditions for their living and work have been created. "Throughout the entire site, the forces of the Ministry of Defense promptly erected modern block-modular camps. About seven hundred units of automobile, engineering and special equipment were involved in the construction," Shoigu informed.

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