Rolling Stock / Wagons
The rolling stock of railway transport is represented by locomotives , wagons (self-propelled and self-propelled), special rolling stock (self-propelled and non-self-propelled). A wagon [vagon] is a unit of railway rolling stock, intended for the carriage of passengers or cargo. The car fleet is characterized by the complexity and variety of types and designs. This is due to the need to meet various requirements for transportation: the protection of a number of cargoes from atmospheric influences, the preservation of the quality of perishable goods, the provision of comfort to passengers, etc. Wagons are classified into four main features: destination, operating location, axle and track width. By appointment, the cars are divided into two main groups: passenger and freight.
The width of the track distinguishes wagons broad (more than 1435 mm), normal (1435 mm) and narrow (less than 1435 mm) gauge. Wagons of Russia, CIS countries, Finland and China are built for the gauge of 1520 mm, the USA, Canada and most of Europe - for gauge 1435 mm.
The fleet of freight cars consists of universal and special wagons. Universal cars are designed for transportation of a wide range of goods, special cars - for certain types or groups of goods similar in properties. The universal cars include covered cars with doors in the side walls, gondola cars with hatches in the floor, platforms with folding sides and refrigerated isothermal wagons. Special wagons are cisterns, hoppers (covered and open), conveyors, dumpcars, as well as covered wagons for transportation of cattle, steel and paper in rolls, gondola cars; dead bodies, platforms and covered cars for the transport of cars, platforms for large-capacity containers and timber, isothermal wagons for transporting milk, live fish, wine, etc.
The important parameters characterizing the possibility of using rail cars are: load capacity, container, number of axles, body volume, floor area, linear dimensions of the railway car, and the maximum permissible speed of its movement. Dimensions of the tank model 15-740-02 Dimensions of the tank model 15-740-02 The carrying capacity of a railway car is the largest cargo weight allowed for carriage in this railway car. Modern universal four-axle freight railway cars have a carrying capacity of 68-71 tons, eight-axle - 120-132 tons, the carrying capacity of a specialized railway car is determined by the type of the cargo being transported. Thus, the carrying capacity of the platform for passenger cars is only 20 tons, and the carrying capacity of the 32-axle articulated conveyor reaches 500 tons.
Conveyors of articulated type are intended for transportation of oversized cargo: powerful power transformers and stators of large electric generators, as well as other large and heavy cargoes, but with the use of special auxiliaries. The conveyor has two consoles, supported by a system of beams on the running gear. The transported cargo is suspended between the consoles of the conveyor and connected to them by rollers. Under the influence of its own weight, the load is jammed between the upper parts of the consoles and participates in the construction of the conveyor as a bearing element. The carrying capacity of 16-, 20-, 28- and 32-axle conveyors is 220, 300, 400 and 500 tons, respectively.
- Long-distance wagons are non-curricular and compartment cars with sleeping hard places, and also compartment with soft sleeping places.
- Interregional transport cars are used to transport passengers for a distance of up to 700 km. These cars are built open type or compartment and equipped with soft seating.
- In carriages of suburban traffic passengers are transported for a distance of up to 150 km. Suburban trains of locomotive traction are formed from wagons with seats or hard seats.
- Wagon-restaurants are designed for catering passengers on the route, postal - for the transport of mail cargo, luggage - for luggage. From wagons for the carriage of passengers, they differ in layout and internal equipment.
- Special passenger cars include: service and sanitary wagons, wagon-clubs, wagons-power plants, etc.
The "Car 2020" is one of the key elements of the new concept of long-distance passenger transportation by rail, which is being developed by the non-commercial partnership "Center for Economic Programs and Strategies Consortium" for Russian Railways. Realization of this concept allows to significantly increase the profitability of passenger rail transportation, and to preserve long-distance trains attractiveness for a mass passenger in the range of 600-2,000 km in the face of ever increasing competition from road and air transport.
It is like three cars, but resting on one wheeled cart and with barrier-free crossings between sections. The total length is 71 m (slightly less than the length of three traditional wagons). This solution makes it possible to make the car much easier and to optimize some other technical parameters. And also reduce the number of conductors. Long-distance passenger transportation by Russian Railways was technically and conceptually stuck in the 1960s, which leads to high costs. For example, in aviation during this period 4 generations of airliners were changed, each new generation reduced the cost of air transportation by 10-15%. The concept of "car 2020" will allow to make a qualitative leap from the middle of the XX century to the XXI century, to reduce the cost of transportation in a compartment 2 times in comparison with a one-story compartment car and 25% in comparison with a reserved car. In the concept of "car 2020" the reserved seat will be replaced by 4-seat economy class coupe, and the coupe will be replaced by one and two-seat "business class" coupe.
Platz-Karte is an additional card for a ticket or a receipt for a numbered place in a wagon in long-distance trains. Platzkartnye [reserved] cars should be replaced with sedentary and compartment cars, as they do not provide comfort for passengers and do not correspond to the development of society, the head of Russian Railways Vladimir Yakunin said 23 january 2015. "The collective striptease for 70 people hardly corresponds to our notions of the individual's right to security and intimacy.I believe that today the development of our society is already such that it's not so easy to undress and dress publicly."
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