9M133-1 / 9K135 - Kornet (AT-14)
The Kornet can be considered a longer range and more capable alternative to the 9K113 Konkurs (AT-5 Spandrel). The Kornet is also more expensive and heavier. The Cornet-E complex of the third generation, developed by GUP KBP and put into service in 1998 with a laser beam guidance system, was the first ATGM to provide complete noise immunity and the ability to fire from mobile carriers. Currently, the Kornet-E ATGM with a firing range of 5500 m is the most modern example of a multi-purpose tactical weapon of a near-range tactical zone, the ammunition of which includes missiles with a cumulative tandem warhead, designed primarily to destroy highly protected objects (tanks, DOT etc.) and missiles with high-explosive warheads to defeat a wide range of targets representing a danger on the battlefield. The main direction of the development of anti-tank systems abroad was the creation of complexes of the third generation, operating on the principle of "shot and forgotten", the implementation of which is ensured by the autonomous homing of ATGM.
The use of technical vision in the Kornet-EM complex with automatic target tracking eliminates a person from the ATGM targeting process and actually ensures the implementation of the “fire and forget” principle, increasing the target tracking accuracy up to 5 times in real conditions of combat use and ensuring a high probability of hitting the entire range of combat use of the complex, twice the range of Kornet-E anti-tank systems.
The possibility of hitting targets in automatic mode reduces the psychophysical burden on operators, the requirements for their qualifications, and also reduces the time for their preparation. The block-modular principle of the complex, traditional for the Kornet family, provides for placement of both two and one automatic launchers on a wide range of relatively inexpensive small-capacity carriers (the weight of the armament complex, including the ammunition load, is 0.8 tons for the variant with one launcher and 1.2 tons for the version with two PU) produced in different countries, with remote control.
In October 1994, the KPB Instrument Design Bureau introduced the Kornet (AT-14) ATGM system. The Kornet was developed introducing a laser beam-riding missile with automatic command-to-line of sight (SACLOS) guidance. The operator simply has to keep the sight on the target to ensure a hit. The laser beam-riding system is also less vulnerable to countermeasures. The Kornet was specifically designed to replace the Konkurs, which has been in service with the former Soviet and Russian armies for over twenty years.
The AT-14 Kornet is a wire-guided missile system. In such a system, the missile literally pulls a thin wire along behind it as it moves toward its target. Those who fire the Kornet control it by keeping the sights of their launcher trained on the target. That way, the missile can be guided at moving targets like tanks and armored troop carriers. As a direct-fire weapon, the missile travels in a straight line, rather than in an arc, as it would with mortar or howitzer artillery. Direct fire is considered more effective than indirect-fire weapons like the mortar artillery because the person who is firing the weapon can see the target himself, rather than relying on forward troops to spot and provide information on where the target is. But the need to keep a Kornet launcher's sights locked on the target means that it must remain stationery after it has fired. After a Kornet missile has traveled 3.5 kilometers, the guidance wire has completely uncoiled and breaks. The missile then becomes erratic, no longer able to lock onto the target. Another disadvantage of wire-guided missiles is that they cannot be fired over trees, power lines, telephone lines, or water. That's because the wire will snag and break, or will malfunction, disabling the guidance system.
The AT-14 Kornet has a range of 3.5 kilometers. The Kornet, which has a claimed ability to penetrate 1100 to 1200 millimeters of steel armor protected by explosive armor, provided a formidable antitank weapon system. However, even with the improved capabilities the Kornet has over earlier systems, an ATGM with all-weather, day or night, immunity to countermeasures, and fire and forget capabilities was still highly desired.
During the 2003 Operation Iraqi Freedom, US troops encountered an unanticipated, and formidable, weapon in the Iraqi arsenal -- Russian-built Kornet antitank missiles. Iraqi soldiers used the wire-guided missile system against American tanks, but the US military previously did not know they possessed. It emerged as the Iraqis' most effective direct-fire weapon against U.S. armor in the desert of southern Iraq. Iraqi commandos traveling in three-man teams dressed in black civilian robes and riding in Nissan pickup trucks moved against the flanks of columns of armor from the US Army's 3rd Infantry Division and launched broadside attacks from several kilometers away using the system. Those attacks had disabled at least two Abrahms tanks and one Bradley armored troop carrier in the opening week of the war. US military intelligence officials were extremely interested in capturing one of the missiles intact. They also instructed American soldiers who destroy one of the Kornet launchers to save the remains of the system for close inspection.
The US State Department accused KBP of supplying Iraq with the Kornet missiles, something KBP and Moscow have vehemently denied. In a phone call on 24 March 2003 with U.S. President George W. Bush, Russian President Vladimir Putin said the American allegations of Russian sales of missiles, night-vision goggles, and radio-jamming equipment were "groundless."
The missile 9M133 is made of canard aerodynamic configuration with a front two rudders, drop out niches forward flight. In front of the missile body leading the charge placed tandem warhead and elements of air-dynamic drive a semi-open circuit with frontal air intake. Further, in the middle section posted solid rocket jet engine to the air channels and tail arrangement of two oblique nozzles. For solid propellant is the main shaped-charge warhead. The aft control elements are arranged to include the light detector of the laser radiation. Four folding wing of thin steel sheets, after the start of the pull-down under the action of its own elastic forces placed on the housing and the tail section positioned at an angle of 45 ° relative to the rudders. ATGM and expelling propulsion system placed in a sealed plastic TPK with hinged lid and handle.
Storage time ATGM TPK without checking - up to 10 years.
Powerful tandem shaped-charge warhead ATGM 9M133-1 is capable of hitting all current and future enemy tanks, including those equipped with hinged or explosive reactive armor and hit concrete monoliths and prefabricated concrete thickness of 3 - 3.5 m A distinctive feature of the layout ATGM 9M133-1 - the main engine placement between the leading and basic shaped charges that, on the one hand, protects the main charge of leading fragments, increases the focal length and, consequently, increases the armor, and on the other - allowing a powerful leading the charge, providing bridging mounted and built-in protection. Provides reliable overcoming mounted and built-in protection.
Probability of defeat tanks such as the M1A2 "Abrams", "Leclerc", "Challenger-2", "Leopard-2A5", "Merkava Mk.3V" 9M133 missile complexes "Cornet-P / T" on the corner of shelling ±90°, is an average of 0.70 - 0.80, that is to defeat each tank needs one or two missiles. In addition, tandem HEAT warhead can penetrate concrete monoliths and prefabricated reinforced concrete with a minimum thickness of 3-3.5 m. And the high level of pressure that develops in the collision HEAT warhead in the target, with both axial and radial directions, leads to crushed concrete in areas cumulative jet breaking the backsheet barrier.
For complex "Cornet" created rocket 9M133F (9M133F-1) with a thermobaric warhead explosive action on mass-dimensional characteristics completely identical with HEAT warhead missile. Thermobaric warhead has a large radius of destruction by the shock wave and the heat of the explosion products. With the explosion of warheads produced more extended in time and space than conventional explosives, the shock wave. Such a wave is called a consistent involvement in the process of detonation transformations of oxygen in the air, it penetrates beyond obstacles, trenches, through the loopholes, etc., affecting manpower, including protected. In the area of detonation transformations thermobaric mixture is almost complete burning of oxygen and develops temperature 800-850° C.
Thermobaric warhead missiles 9M133F (9M133F-1) have TNT equivalent of 10 kg, its high explosive and incendiary effects on the target warhead yields regular 152 mm CFC. The need for such a warhead on precision weapons confirmed by the experience of local conflicts. ATGM "Kornet" by picking ATGM 9M133F (9M113F-1), became a powerful assault weapons, and that in the city, and in mountains, and in the field is able to effectively destroy fortifications (bunkers, pillboxes, bunkers), hit firepower and manpower placed in residential and commercial buildings and structures, their fragments, in the folds of the terrain, trenches and buildings as well as to destroy these objects, trucking and lightly armored vehicles, causing them and the open countryside, in the presence of flammable materials, fires.
The vehicular-portable version ATGM "Kornet-E" is placed on 9P163M PU-1 launch unit, consisting of tripod machine with precision mechanical drives, sight-homing device 1P45M-1 and the mechanism of a missile launch. Sight-guidance device - periscope: the actual device installed in a container under cradles PU, turning the eyepiece - bottom left. ATGM mounted on a cradle on top of IP, after the shot can be changed manually. Height of the line of fire can vary widely, and it allows you to shoot from different positions (lying, sitting, from the trench or building windows) and to adapt to the terrain. To ensure the fire at night in transportable laptop-complex can be used thermal imaging (TPR) HYPO sights development NGOs.
The export version of the complex "Kornet-E", is offered with a thermal imager 1PN79M "Mixed-2." The sight consists of an opto-electronic receiver unit with infrared wavelengths, controls and gas cylinder cooling system. The power supply uses a nickel-cadmium battery. Detection range up to 4000m type MBT, recognition - 2500m, the field of view - 2,8 ° x4, 6 °. The device operates in the wavelength range of 8 - 13mkm has a total weight of 11kg, the dimensions of optical-electronic unit 590 x 212 x 200mm. TPR rear sight is mounted cylinder cooling system, the lens is covered by a hinged lid. The sight is mounted on the right side of the UE. There is also a lite version of this TPV - 1PN79M-1 with a mass of 8.5 kg.
For the variant complex "Cornet-P", intended for the Russian army has TPV sight 1PN80 "Cornet-TP", which allows you to firing not only at night but also when confronting the adversary's combat smoke. Target detection range of "tank" to 5000 meters, recognition to 3500m. For transportation complex "Cornet" and usability combat crew 9P163M PU-1 develops into a compact stowed position, the thermal sight is housed in a pack device. Weight launcher - 25 kg. It can be delivered in a combat zone by any mode of transport. If necessary, use the transition bracket complex "Cornet" 9P163M with PU-1 is easily installed on all mobile carriers.
"Cornet" implements the principle of direct attack missiles in the frontal projection target with a semi-automatic control system and guided missiles on a laser beam. Operatorship in combat work reduced to target detection via optical or thermal sight, taking it to support, production shots and keeping crosshairs on target until its destruction. Conclusion missiles after launch the line of sight (the axis of the laser beam) and further holding it at her place automatically. The complex implemented almost complete immunity from active and passive (in the form of military smoke) optical interference. High immunity to active optical interference by the enemy realized that the photodetector missiles faces towards the shooting complex. In the presence of combat almost always smokes operator observes a target in a thermal sight, and the principle of "see - shoot" provides a high energy potential of laser-beam control channel.
The complex is multipurpose, ie its characteristics do not depend on the kind of signature targets in the optical and infrared range of electromagnetic waves. Equipping missiles warhead - or thermobaric explosive action allows to strike a large class of objectives - engineering structures, silos, bunkers, machine gun nests, etc. Such opportunities in the developed to the west complex long-range ATGW - 3/LR absent because of the use of passive homing missile seeker target acquisition at the start because of the low thermal signatures.
The The cost of 9M133-1 missiles is 3-4 times less than the cost of other ATGW missiles, and at the same combat effectiveness and the complex "Cornet" can hit 3-4 times more targets. Advantages and application features: versatility, defeat all the targets outside the effective return fire of the enemy; ensuring combat operation in the "lying", "kneeling", "standing in the trenches" with the trained and untrained gun positions; vsesutochnost application, defeat all of these types of targets by day and night; laser beam encoding makes two launchers by simultaneous cross and parallel firing two close targets; full protection against the radiation optical jamming stations like "Blind-1" (Russia), Pomals Piano Violin Mk1 (Israel); the possibility of placing on a wide variety of wheeled and tracked vehicles; simultaneous firing two missiles at one target automated launcher increases the probability of hitting the target and provides jamming protection; implemented in the control system riding missile laser beam allows to fire on the move with the trained and untrained positions (including salt marshes on the coast, above the water surface).
Training facilities include field and classroom computer simulators. Maintenance facilities allow checking the launcher and thermal sight. In addition to the portable version based ATGM "Kornet" developed complex following options: Single combat module (MBP) "Cleaver" With the combined missile-gun armament. Module has four ATGM launchers "Cornet", 30-mm automatic cannon 2A72 (4000m firing range, rate of 350-400 rounds per minute). The total weight of the turret - about 1500 kg, including ammunition and missiles. The control system includes a ballistic computer, night vision devices, laser rangefinder and stabilization system. Angle horizontal guidance - 360 °, vertical - from -10 ° to +60°. Ammunition - 12 missiles, 8 of them in the autoloader. MBP "Cleaver" is designed to equip a wide range of combat vehicles lightweight type BMP, BTR, may be placed on small ships, including coast guard cutters, as well as stationary. Fighting module design is a turret located on the pursuit of a size similar to the size of the ring BMP-1.
Module weight and small size shoulder straps allow the use of "Cleaver" as a universal set of weapons that is placed on military vehicles lightweight, including BMP-1, BMP-2, BTR-80, "Pandur", "Piranha", "Fahd". "Cleaver" has a perfect automated fire control system, which includes a two-axis stabilized sight with reticle-rangefinder, thermal imaging and laser channels (Laser Sight - guidance device 1K13-2) ballistic computer with the sensor system of external information, as well as stabilization system armament unit in two planes. This allows you to fire guided weapons with places on the move and afloat, by land, air and sea targets, exceeding the firepower of existing combat vehicles, including modern BMP M2 Bradley.
An important advantage of this development - the ability to install the module on most carriers in customer maintenance organizations without modifying transport base. Automated PU 9P163-2 "Quartet" with four guides and electromechanical actuators based on light carrier (see photo). The unit includes: a turret with four rails for missiles, sight-guidance device 1P45M-1 thermal sight 1PN79M-1 electronic module and driver's seat. Boeukladka housed separately.
The firing unit PU 9P163-2 is in constant combat readiness can produce up to four rounds without reloading, shooting a salvo two missiles in one beam at a single target. It is characterized by simplified search and target tracking using electromechanical actuators. 9P162 combat vehicle On the basis of the BMP-3 chassis. BM 9P162 is equipped with an autoloader to automate the process of preparing for combat and work to minimize the time reloading. In the loading mechanism can be located up to 12 plus 4 SD ATGM in lodgment. Two guides allow you to fire two missiles in one beam at a particularly dangerous purpose. Retractable induced in two planes installation includes two guides for suspension transport-launch containers with missiles, which are placed on top of the blocks with guidance equipment.
Two guides allow firing two missiles in one beam at a particularly dangerous purpose. They provide guidance on horizontal angles - 360 °, vertically from -15 ° to +60 °. BM 9P162 floating, aviatransportabelnaya. Combat vehicle body is made of aluminum alloy armor. The most critical projection reinforced rolled steel armor so that they are spaced armor obstacles. BM 9P162 weight less than 18 tons. Maximum road speed 72 km / hour (on a dirt road - 52 km / h, afloat - 10 km / h). Range - 600 - 650 km. Crew (settlement) - 2 person (commander-operator complex and driver). developed Lodging transportable laptop-complex "Cornet-P" ("Kornet-E") in open vehicles. In particular, self-propelled antitank system created "West" on the chassis of the UAZ-3151. In addition, similar accommodation complex is possible on GAZ-2975 "Tiger", UAZ-3132 "Hussar", "Scorpio", etc.
Furthermore, SUE "Instrument Design Bureau" drafted (see photo) modernizing obsolete BMP-2, including equipping combat vehicle third-generation ATGM "Kornet-E" and install combined Gunner 1K13-2 (while maintaining body and the internal layout of the turret). Calculations of the effectiveness groupings upgraded BMP-2M in combat as the autonomous actions, and supported by tanks show that with equal probability of combat mission required number of combat vehicles can be reduced to 3.8-4 times. This is achieved by a higher probability of defeat tanks ATGM 9M133-1, their more ammunition, effective fire at night. Technical solutions embodied in the modernization of the crew compartment, determine its advantages in comparison with the regular combat compartment BMP-2 for potential weapons on average 3-3.5 times. Refit this version, the BMP-2 on the combat power reaches the level of the best modern infantry fighting vehicles, and possibly defeat tanks and other targets guided missile has a clear advantage.
The issue of increasing the firing range is currently one of the controversial. Many military experts believe that the nature of the terrain and the screening properties of the landscape in most of the territories suitable for warfare, provide direct visibility at distances of no more than 3–4 km,In this connection, the implementation of firing ranges of armament complexes leading direct fire at visually observable targets is not more than the specified values. However, an analysis of the armed conflicts of recent decades shows that in areas with desert-flat nature of relief, in wide valleys located between mountains, in the foothills, when located at commanding heights, targets can be observed at distances over 10-15 km.Using the advantages of the terrain in the conduct of hostilities, which, among other things, includes taking positions that provide maximum sectors and range of view, is one of the main conditions for successful combat. Therefore, for the above types of terrain, there will always be situations where there is the possibility of detecting and firing targets at long ranges (over 5-6 km). In this regard, the state unitary enterprise “KBP” believes that weapons, including anti-tank systems, should ensure firing at the maximum possible range, which will cause significant damage to the enemy before the main forces enter fire contact with him or organize ambushes the battle.
Of course, this should not worsen the other characteristics of the complex: accuracy of fire, the power of impact on the target, weight and size characteristics. In Kornet-EM ATGM This problem was solved. Due to the improvement of the control system of the complex, the designs of the engines of the guided missiles and the introduction of an automatic target tracking machine, the firing range of the complex has been increased to 8 (ATGM with EAC) - 10 km (EAR with EFC). At the same time, the accuracy of firing of Kornet-EM anti-tank systems by 10 km was 5 km higher than that of the base complex Kornet-E , while the new missiles retained the dimensions and docking parameters of previously developed Kornet-E missiles, which allows to ensure their compatibility with previously developed launchers and maintain operational characteristics.
Increasing the range and accuracy of shooting, the implementation of auto-tracking, providing the ability to track not only slow ground targets, but also more high-speed objects, made it possible to solve in the Cornet-EM complexa fundamentally new task for ATGMs - the defeat of small air targets (helicopters, UAVs and attacking attack aircraft). The recent appearance and the predicted sharp increase in the future number of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) of reconnaissance and reconnaissance-strike type, together with the dramatically increased role of army aviation reconnaissance and attack helicopters complexes (which are the most massive type of WTO SV) in the fight against low-speed aircraft.
To effectively counter attack helicopters and UAVs, it is necessary to have air defense systems directly in combat formations, since they attack or reconnaissance overflight at low altitude, which does not allow them to be detected in time by medium and long range air defense systems, usually located deep in the rear.
ATCM "Cornet-EM" is a complex that can effectively solve such problems. The effectiveness of the Cornet-EM complex in the fight against air targets is provided by a combination of a high-precision automatic guidance system and a guided missile with a thermobaric warhead, equipped with a proximity and contact target sensor (NDC) with a range of up to 10 km. The presence of a non-contact target sensor ensures reliable defeat of air targets at all firing ranges. In combination with the powerful high-explosive warhead of the NDC, it is possible to compensate for possible misses of the complex, ensuring effective defeat by excessive pressure of the UAV (or helicopter) with misses up to 3 meters. The maximum range of a rocket flight of 10 km gives an advantage to the Cornet-EM complex in the fight against helicopters - it provides the possibility of firing at distances exceeding the ranges used by the adversary for military weapons.
As a result, the Kornet-EM anti- tank missile system can, if necessary, perform some of the functions of the near-zone air defense system, providing cover for the combat forces of its troops from attacks by helicopters and UAVs. No other complex has this quality. The interaction of the Kornet-EM anti -tank systems with standard air defense systems, which are adapted to combat low-speed air targets, will significantly increase the effectiveness of air defense tactical units of the Ground Forces as a whole.
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