An-12 CUB - Design
The An-12 cargo turboprop aircraft was developed in 1957 by Antonov Design Bureau for medium- and long-haul cargo operations. The An-12 is configured as the cantilever metal monoplane with high-mounted wing, elevated fuselage tail, single-fin tail and retractable three-strut landing gear with steering nose wheel. The landing gear wheels with low-pressure tires permit to operate the aircraft from the unpaved airfields.
The wings are high-mounted with drooping outer wing panels, back-tapered leading edges, straight trailing edges, and blunt tips. Four turboprop engines are mounted under the wings' leading edges. The round, slender body features a stepped cockpit and glassed-in nose, with landing gear pods which bulge at lower body midsection. The tail flats are unequally tapered with blunt tips and mounted high on the fuselage. The fin is tapered with a blunt tip and a step in the leading edge. Two 23-mm guns are mounted in a tail turret.
An-12 is equipped with four TVD AI-20M with a capacity of 4250 e. Its maximum load-carrying capacity is 20 tons, normal - 12 tons. The flight range with a normal load is 3200 kilometers. The cargo cabin is not sealed, for transportation of personnel and paratroopers it is equipped with oxygen equipment, and for parachute landing of equipment and cargoes - with removable cargo conveyors, some modifications of which can be used for serial bombing. Loading of non-self-propelled equipment and cargoes is carried out with the help of cargo winches and two cargo hoists with a carrying capacity of 2.5 tons. The defensive armament includes two 23 mm HP-23 guns in the stern unit. Under the wing are units of external suspension of bombs up to 250 kg caliber.
Four AI-20 turboprops are mounted on the wings furnished with double-slotted flaps. The aircraft fuselage is of a circular semi-monocoque type with flat load-bearing skin. The aircraft half wings are mounted with negative angle of dihedral tip panels for better lateral dynamic stability, decreasing influence of emergency engine shutdowns and wind gusts on the aircraft lateral- directional dynamics.
The An-12 aircraft fuselage with elevated tail and big cargo door provides for convenient conditions of large-size cargo handling and paradropping. The 2.5t capacity airborne cargo handling device and quick-release transporter facilitate and accelerate the landing, mooring and unloading operations. The loading of large-size equipment is made through cargo door with ramp in the rear part of fuselage. The cargo cabin is not pressurized but equipped with individual oxygen supply system.
The pressurized compartments for crew and personnel accompanying equipment in flight are located in front of the cargo cabin. The fuselage tail accommodates the pressurized back-seat compartment for observation gunner. The non-pressurized cargo cabin is equipped with ventilation and heating system, tie-down points, cargo ramps, equipment handling winch and 2300 kg capacity monorail hoist.
The An-12 aircraft fuselage with elevated tail and big cargo door provides for convenient conditions of large-size cargo handling and paradropping. The 2.5t capacity airborne cargo handling device and quick-release transporter facilitate and accelerate the landing, mooring and unloading operations. The loading of large-size equipment is made through cargo door with ramp in the rear part of fuselage. The cargo cabin is not pressurized and equipped with individual oxygen supply system.
Loading of equipment and large-sized cargoes is made through the hatch located in the rear part of the fuselage. Due to the use of the "high-plan" scheme, the level of the cargo floor of the machine is placed close to the ground, which facilitates the loading of the aircraft. At the same time on the floor of the cargo cabin there are mooring units and sockets for installing stretchers.
The flight-control and navigation equipment includes the compass system, autopilot, short-range radionavigation system equipment, electronic system of instrument landing, automatic radio direction finder (RDF), radio altimeter, inter-traffic navigation system. The radio communication is provided by HF and VHF radio sets, aircraft interphone system, emergency radio set.
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