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Project 1155.1 Udaloy - Modernization

The significance of Project 1155 large anti-submarine ships for the Russian Navy is difficult to overestimate. In fact, since, as of 2018, the remaining ocean-going ships are represented by single combat-ready units, the Project 1155 BODs are the only Russian serial ocean-going ships. The weapons of the project 1155 BOD are unbalanced: The undoubted advantages of ships of this type are significant anti-submarine abilities (Rastrub-B anti-submarine missiles + 533-mm torpedoes + RBU-6000), the ability to base two helicopters and the excellent Dagger short-range air defense system (with a range of up to 12 kilometers). The disadvantage of ships of this type is the lack of medium-range air defense systems (especially essential for single operations in the ocean zone) and weak missile weapons. In this regard, the repair and re-equipment of ships of this type is of great importance.

Under a December 1996 agreement China purchased two Russian Sovremenny-class destroyers. With the Russian Navy's consent, Severnaya Verf used some of the money to repair the Large ASW ship Admiral Levchenko ($98 million), Large ASW ship Severomorsk ($33 million), and cruiser Marshal Ustinov ($54 million) for the Northern Fleet. Severnaya Verf is now repairing the big ASW ship Vice Admiral Kulakov, which has spent a decade moored, on a similar basis.

Refits of Udaloy-class destroyers was delayed pending the completion of a production capability for large marine gas turbines in Russia. The Admiral Levchenko arrived at St. Petersburg for a refit in February 2000. The Vitse-Admiral Kulakov, which had been laid up at Kronshtadt since 1990, arrived at Severny Werf in June 2000 for a refit to be completed in 2002. Previously, Western observers had doubted whether the Kulakov would return to service. Indeed, as of January 2004 Kulakov remained in the repair yard. The Severomorsk completed refit on 30 August 2000.

During the period 16-19 February 2004, Russia conducted its largest military exercise in two decades. Naval units that participated in the exercise included the heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser Admiral Kuznetsov, large anti-sub ships Admiral Levchenko and Admiral Chabanenko, and the heavy nuclear-powered missile cruiser Pyotr Veliky.

As of 2007, there were 8 operational Udaloy-class destroyers in the Russian Navy. The Admiral Kulakov and Admiral Levchenko were slated to undergo repairs sometime during the year. The remaining ships had each undergone repairs at some point since entering service, but most still possessed outdated systems and had not yet received upgrades. As of 2008, there were 7 operational Udaloy-I class destroyers in the Russian Navy, and a single Udaloy-II. The International Institute of Strategic Studies repored 8 operational Udaloy-I, but this is not widely attested.

A nominal 35 year operating life for these ships would see them in service through around the year 2020, but all but the single Udaloy-II would be withdrawn from service soon thereafter. The Vitse-Admiral Kulakov has been in refit since 1992, and had not returned to service as of mid-2008. The Marshal Vasil'yevsky had been expected by some observers to decommission as early as 2004 or 2005, but by mid 2008 this unit remained in service. It may be that Vitse-Admiral Kulakov will conclude refit and resume active service when Marshal Vasil'yevsky is finally retired. The Admiral Spiridonov and Admiral Tributs remained in reserve, but as of 2008 it was not apparent what contribution they might make to future force structure.

In connection with the absence of destroyers in the fleet in the mid-1990s, it was decided to subject the best-preserved ships to cardinal modernization. The result of the improvements being made was the emergence of practically new ships, more similar in combat potential to destroyers. Respectively changed and combat missions that performed the updated ships.

By 2018 the situation with the modernization of the large anti-submarine ship Admiral Chabanenko, the only representative of the project 1155.1, may be cause for concern. In the spring of 2014, the 35th Shipyard took over this ship for medium repairs. Soon it was decided to carry out a major upgrade with the replacement of a significant part of the on-board equipment. According to the news, all works and tests will be completed only in 2022-23, and only after that the Northern Fleet would continue to operate the ship.

The ship of the type project 1155 "Admiral Panteleyev" was the last 12 ships in the series. The upcoming modernization of the ships will significantly extend their service life, turning it into full-fledged combat units of the modern Russian Navy.

By some miracle, the second ship of the project and the first built at the plant named after Zhdanova (SV) survived - "Vice Admiral Kulakov" was under repair for almost 20 years (1991-2010). Since 2004 the ship is in reserve for technical condition (in the technical reserve of the 2nd category), formally - in anticipation of a planned medium repair with replacement of the main engines (it was assumed that it will begin in 2014 at the Severnaya Verf). The ship is neat and tidy, with a flag, a gun and, presumably, partially (minus a power plant) technically sound. In fact, Kharlamov has long been a stationary training ship, which trains specialists for the more successful 1155s and other ships of the Northern Fleet.

Many of the achievements of Soviet shipbuilding were successfully embodied in the Udalny, noted Admiral Valentin Selivanov, the former chief of the Main Staff of the Navy. Many of them have been in service for over 35 years, and there is no reason to doubt that they will last a long time after modernization, he told Izvestia May 29, 2019. "BOD of this project visited all oceans, including the Arctic. We went to the Caribbean - in particular, to Cuba. They have powerful anti-submarine weapons. And the appearance of new missile systems will seriously expand their combat capabilities".

Since December 2013, Admiral Chabanenko had been docked at the 35th ship repair plant in Murmansk. Initially, Russian Navy planned to conduct interim overhaul, however, in August 2017 Kommersant reported that naval command had decided to retrofit the ship. According to the newspaper, Severnoye Design Bureau will prepare the project docs for modernization of Admiral Chabanenko by December 2019. Thus, works on the engines will be completed half year prior to the ships retrofitting. On 9 November 2017 it was reported tha Metallist-Samara will repair the DO90-type booster turbines for Admiral Chabanenko ASW ship; the works to be completed in June 2019. According to the procurement documents available, overhaul of two DO90-type booster turbines will cost 242 mln rubles.

On 18 June 2014 the large anti-submarine ship (BOD) of the Northern Fleet (SF) "Admiral Levchenko", operating as part of a permanent group of ships of the Russian Navy in the Mediterranean Sea, made the first transition in the modern history of Russia from the Ionian to the Tyrrhenian Sea through the Strait of Messina, dividing the Apennine peninsula and island of sicily. A few days earlier, Admiral Levchenko completed the restoration of technical readiness and left the naval base of the Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol. The BMS Admiral Levchenkos long voyage began on December 17, 2013 with the departure from the main base of the Northern Fleet - Severomorsk - as part of the naval carrier group of the Northern Fleet, led by the heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov.

The Russian Navy has launched a program to modernize the "workhorses" of surface forces - large anti-submarine ships (BOD) of Project 1155 Udaloy. In 2016, the BPC Admiral Shaposhnikov started repair and modernization at OJSC Dalzavod Ship Repair Center OJSC (Vladivostok). It is planned to install the anti-ship missile system "Uranus" equipped with X-35 missiles; Bagira, a universal fire control system for naval artillery MP-123-02 / 3, which is used to control anti-aircraft artillery of a caliber of 30 to 100 millimeters or unguided rocket weapons of a caliber of 122 to 140 millimeters; shipborne electronic suppression system TK-25, designed for sustainable electronic defense; general-purpose radar system MP-710; 5P-30N2 radar information processing systems; the automated communication complex R-779-28 and the GMDSS complex. Sea trials of the ship are scheduled for the end of 2019.

Izvestia reported in March 2018 that launchers of Caliber cruise missiles will be received on least five ships. The complexes were being installed at the BPC Admiral Shaposhnikov. It is effectively the construction of a new ship on an old hull. New in terms of electronics are installed and, most importantly, apart from 8 launchers of the X-35 Uran anti-shipping missile to be installed in place of the Rastrub anti-submarine missiles, the second bow AK-100 is removed and 8 cells of UKSK vertical launchers are installed and that means the ability to launch any Kalibr family missile, be it TLAM, ASCM or anti-submarine one.

 RFS 543 Marshal Shaposhnikov, project 1155 Udaloy Class destroyer at Dalzavod Ship Repair Center 2018  RFS 543 Marshal Shaposhnikov, project 1155 Udaloy Class destroyer at Dalzavod Ship Repair Center 2018  RFS 543 Marshal Shaposhnikov, project 1155 Udaloy Class destroyer at Dalzavod Ship Repair Center 2018

1155 Shaposhnikov 1155 Shaposhnikov 1155 Shaposhnikov

According to the Navy, in the course of modernization, the possibility of equipping them with Onyx prospective anti-ship missiles was also considered. The frigates of the project 1155, built back in the 80s, turned out to be technically perfect and unpretentious, therefore they still form the basis of the ocean surface forces. But until recently, these ships were equipped with only 100-mm guns, Metel torpedoes and the Dagger anti-aircraft system," the newspaper wrote. From the photographs available online, it can be assumed that during the repair, in order to strengthen the rocket armament of the ship, the second 100-mm AK-100 artillery mount was dismantled.

The project for re-equipping the ship using not only Uran anti-ship missiles, located probably near torpedo tubes, but also the Caliber universal missile system in the form of two inclined and one vertical launchers. Such a project will significantly increase the ships missile power but it disregards the fact that its air defense remains completely unsatisfactory for combat operations outside the coastal aviation cover zone of the Russian Navy.

Both the Poliment-Redut air defense system and the Redut air defense system require at least modern radars with a phased antenna array, or better, an integrated tower structure of the same type as used on the project 22350 frigate. In a word, to place both the first and the second air defense systems on the BOD of project 1155 is either very expensive and very difficult, or (most likely) technically completely impossible.

On the contrary, the Shtil-1 air defense system is perfectly compatible with the Fregat-M2M general-purpose radar and the Fregat radar of the same type, which leads to the conclusion that it is optimally used on a large anti-submarine ship of Project 1155. Shtil-1 air defense systems with a range of up to 50 km, which are equipped with frigates of project 11356 (Russian Admiral Grigorovich, Admiral Essen, Admiral Makarov).

The large anti-submarine ship (BOD) project 1155 "Marshal Shaposhnikov" will be upgraded and returned to the fleet in the years 2021-2022. Rear-Admiral Vladimir Tryapichnikov, head of the shipbuilding department of the Russian Navy, shared this forecast with journalists 30 May 2019. "Project 1155 BOD is a very good seagoing ship, at that time with good armament, but today it needs to be modernized. Modernization has already begun, it is in full swing. 2021-2022, it will be completely modernized and will re-enter the combat structure of the Navy," said Tryapichnikov.

According to him, the ship is now being re-equipped with modern weapon systems. "I think that time will show that on a good platform, which is balanced, with the new composition of weapons, this ship will continue to carry out its tasks for the intended purpose," said Tryapichnikov.

Also, answering a question from journalists about whether modernization of other ships of the 1155 project could begin in the future, he noted that at first the leadership of the Navy would analyze the results of work on the Marshal Shaposhnikov. First, we will look at Shaposhnikov, but slowly we are going to modernize all the ships that are currently in the Northern and Pacific Fleets, said Tryapichnikov. BOD "Marshal Shaposhnikov" was built in the mid 1980s. In 2013, as part of a detachment of ships of the Pacific Fleet, he carried out an anti-piracy watch in the Gulf of Aden, in 2014, he served in the Pacific and Indian oceans for more than four months. Currently undergoing repairs and upgrades. The displacement of ships of project 1155 exceeds 7,000 tons, the full speed reaches 32 knots, and the cruising range is 5 thousand miles. In total in the 1980s more than 10 such ships were built.



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